Agriculture at Kalibangan – Evidences and Excavations

MUNI VIJAY

Abstract


 

 

Abstract- the early Harappan habitation at Kalibangan is part of the matrix such sites of this period found along the Hakra Ghaggar, the old bed of the Saraswati and paleo-channels of the Sutlej. This ecological scenario provided a unique subsistence pattern at Kalibangan consisting of raising livestock coupled with agriculture, which is evidenced by the furrow marks in two directions, cutting at right angles to each other, furrows are closely spaced which indicates mixed crops cultivation and it has great similarity to such growing of double crops even in modern times. The terracotta model of plough from Banawali of the Harappan period could give the idea of the ploughshare in the antecedent early Harappan culture.


Keywords


Harappan, Ploughing, Gypsum Calcium Sulphate.

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References


Mughal, M. Rafique (1988). Genesis of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Lahore Museum Bulletin, Vol. 1, 45-54, Possehl, G. L. (2002). The Harappan Civilisation: A Contemporary Perspective, in GL Possehl edt. The Indus Civilisation: A contemporary Perspective, Altamira Press.

Lal B. B., et el (2003). Excavations at Kalibangan- The Early Harappans, Delhi, ASI.

Lal B. B., et el (2003). Excavations at Kalibangan- The Early Harappans, Delhi, ASI.

Thapar, B. K., (2002). The Harappan Civilisation: some Reflections on its Environments and Resources and Their Exploitation, in GL Possehl edt. The Indus Civilisation: A contemporary Perspective, Altamira Press, 3-13.

Rao, S. R., (2008). Agriculture in the Inndus Civilisation, in D. P. Chattopadhyay edt. Series, History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Vol. V, Part 1, History of Agriculture in India(upto c.1200 AD), ed. Lallanji Gopal & V. C. Srivastava, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 171-203

Thapar, B. K., (2002). The Harappan Civilisation: some Reflections on its Environments and Resources and Their Exploitation, in GL Possehl ed. The Indus Civilisation: A contemporary Perspective, Altamira Press, 3-13.

Thakran, R. C., (2000), Implications of Partition on Protohistoric Investigations in the Ghaggar-Ganga Basin, Social Scientist, Vol. 28, No. ½ (jan-Feb.), 42-67.

The most outstanding achievement of Indus Valley Civilization is the cultural integration. Different groups of people urban and rural folk, pastoral people and forest dwellers live by by peaceful means. Common economic interests brought them together.With competent leaders at the centre and in the provinces, people enjoyed not only material prosperity but also freedom to observe ones faith. For instance, the worship of the mother goddess, popular in the Indus valley, hardly known in Kalibangan and Lothal. On the other hand fire worship and offer of the sacrifice were practiced in the Saurastra., Rajasthan and Haryana. Yet the cultural integration of the forest dwellers venerating the tiger and elephant deities with the fire worshippers is clearly indicated in the so called pasupati seal in Mohenjodaro.

Rao, S. R., (2008). Agriculture in the Inndus Civilisation, in D. P. Chattopadhyay edt. Series, History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Vol. V, Part 1, History of Agriculture in India(upto c.1200 AD), ed. Lallanji Gopal & V. C. Srivastava, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 2008, 171-203

Chattopadhyay, B. D., (1973). Irrigation in Early Medieval Rajasthan, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 16, No. 2/3 (Dec.), 298-316.

Thakran, R. C., (2000). Implications of Partition on Protohistoric Investigations in the Ghaggar-Ganga Basin, Social Scientist, Vol. 28, No. ½ (jan-Feb.), 42-67.

The wetness may be attributed to the high rainfall and presence of the Saraswati affording appropriate environment for a high level of floral and faunal diversity possibly having gallery forests. This might have resulted in a moist vegetation comprising evergreen forest type and range lands. The clues indicate that the forest reaches its climate climax. The vegetation of the early Harappan period consist of Acacia (Babul), Anogeissus springs (Dhak), which could be attested to by the Charcoal samples leading to the presumption that besides using the timber of these trees for construction purposes, it was also used for tool handles of agricultural implements e.g. plough and furniture. The bark of Acacia could have been used as fire wood also. It interesting to note that four charcoal samples, Baul, Dhak, Shisam produce more heat less smoke, leading to better combustion. However teak is not a good fire wood and gives smoke. It appears that Pipal and banana were grown as these are well represented in the painted pottery-in Lal B. B., et el (2003). Excavations at Kalibangan- The Early Harappans, Delhi, ASI.

Lal B. B., et el (2003). Excavations at Kalibangan- The Early Harappans, Delhi, ASI.

Bisht, R.S., ‘Secrets of Water Fort’, http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/content/14632/secrets-of-the-water-fort/, 14/5/94. Bist, R. S., (1978). Banawali: A New Harappan Site in Haryana, in Man and Environment, vol. II. Bist, R. S., (1982, 1993). Excavations at Banawali: 1974-77, in Harappan Civilization, (ed.) Gregory Possehl, New Delhi.

The Neolithic food producers did not plough the field. They used to dig pits with a pointed wooden stick, at the top of which a stone ring for weight was fixed. This method continued for some time even after metal came into use-B B Lal opines in Lal, B B (1997). Ancient civilization of South Asia, New Delhi, Aryans Books, 1997.

Lambrich, H., (1967), The, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 133, No. 4 (Dec.), 483-495

Thapar, B. K., (2002). The Harappan Civilisation: some Reflections on its Environments and Resources and Their Exploitation, in GL Possehl edt. The Indus Civilisation: A contemporary Perspective, 2002, Altamira Press, 3-13.

Lal B. B., et el (2003). Excavations at Kalibangan- The Early Harappans, Delhi, ASI.

Bist, R. S.(1978)., Banawali: A New Harappan Site in Haryana, Man and Environment, vol. II, Bist, R. S., (1982,1993). Excavations at Banawali: 1974-77, in Harappan Civilization, (ed.) Gregory Possehl, New Delhi.

Ibid.

Lal B B, et el (2003). Excavations at Kalibangan- The Early Harappans, Delhi, ASI.

Ibid.

Rao, S. R., (2008). Agriculture in the Inndus Civilisation, in D. P. Chattopadhyay edt. Series, History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Vol. V, Part 1, History of Agriculture in India(upto c.1200 AD), ed. Lallanji Gopal & V. C. Srivastava, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 171-202.

Ibid.


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