Mining vs. Hydel Power Projects- Ownership, Environment and the State: A Case Study of Khanyara (Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh
Slate mining was the only community based mineral resource management in Khanyara at a point of time in history. According to the State laws, Mining activities were considered illegal and there aroused differences in state government policies. Khanyara Panchayat lost their rights and the mining activities were ceased down in 1997 (625 hectares). In 2004, the mining was reopened but for 25 hectares of land and distribution of the mines is to a handful group of individuals and companies. With the gradual drift in time, consecutive changes started taking place and developments took shape in terms of hydel power projects. Hydel power has the key feature of adapting to the period of necessities, during on- peak and off-peak; referred as hydro- shifting (Edwards et al., 1999). The construction of hydropower plants is dependent on the factors of the topography, the underlying geological conditions, the availability of water resource and its flow potential, the nature of economy, ease of transportation, the impact of earthquakes and landslides etc (Gunaydin, 2012). Taking the morphological conditions of India, the underlying topography of Khanyara has highly favoured the pre- requisite of run-of-river hydel projects. The report evolves with the objective to look at the pros and cons of the Slate Mining and Hydel Power Project and its impact on the population of Khanyara. The comparability of mining and hydel projects, former being instinctive and the latter being induced economic activity, the objective lies in sketching the chronology of rural transformation that took place in Kangra, with the spontaneous shift in the continuum of economic activity. Furthermore, the transformation should not only be seen in the context of source of livelihood but the pattern of ownership, the contribution of State, and its perpetual effect on the environment should also be taken into consideration.
Ahmead, N. (2007). Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Asia- Pacific Case Study series. Case Study, Retrieved from http://www.asmasiapacific.org/download_file.php?uid=96.
Baird, S. (2006). Hydroelectric power. Retrieved from www.ecology.com
Baker, J.M. (2014, May 24). Small Hydropower Development in Himachal Pradesh: An Analysis of Socio-ecological Effects. Economic & Political Weekly, Vol. XLIX, no. 21, 77-86.
Bakis, R. (2007, July 28). The Current Status and Future Opportunities of Hydroelectricity. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 2(3), 259-266.
Bandyopadhyay, J. & Gyawali, D. (1994, February). Himalayan Water Resources: Ecological and Political Aspects of Management. Mountain Research and Development, International Mountain Society, 14(1), 1-24.
Dharmshala Hydro Power Limited (DHPL). 9.5 MW hydel project in Himachal Pradesh. India. Retrieved from http://www.dharmshalahydropowerlimited.com/projects.htm
Edwards, B.K., S. J. Flaim & R. E. Howitt, (2009, May). Optimal Provision of Hydroelectric Power under Environmental and Regulatory Constraints. Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, 75(2), 267-283.
Government of Himachal Pradesh (2006). Hydro Power Policy. Shimla.
Günaydin, K. (2012). Electricity Generation from Dams in Turkey. Energy Sources,
Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 7(3), 241-25.
Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation, Dharamshala. Retrieved from http://hptdc.nic.in/cir0302.htm
HIM DHARA- Environment Research and Action in Himachal Pradesh (2012). Encroachments by 23 power projects: The Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.himdhara.org/2012/07/23/encroachments-by-23-power-projects/
HIMURJA. Small Hydro Development Programme in Himachal Pradesh. Retrieved from http://himurja.nic.in/smallhydro.html
Hindustan Times (2014). HP dam bursts: 2 huts washed away. Retrieved from http://www.hindustantimes.com/himachalpradesh/hp-dam-bursts-2-huts-washed-away/article1-1197507.aspx
Himachal Pradesh Electricity Regulatory Commission (2013). Report of Committee on Expeditious Harnessing of Small Hydro Power Potential in Himachal Pradesh. 1-51.
Hydel Power- Industry- Focus. Dharmshala Hydro Project to set up 4.5 MW Maujhi hydro electric project. Retrieved from http://hydel-power.industry-focus.net/himachal-hydel-projects/129-dharmshala-hydro-power-to-set-up-45-mw-mauhji-hydro-electric-project-dharmshala-hydro-power-to-set-up-45-mw-mauhji-hydro-electric-project.html
India-WRIS. Hydro Electric Projects. Water Resources Information System of India. Retrieved from http://india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/wrpinfo/index.php?title=Hydro_Electric_Projects
International Hydropower Association (2003). The role of hydropower in sustainable development. IHA White Paper. Retrieved from < http://www.hydropower.org
Kaygusuz, K. (2002). Sustainable Development of Hydroelectric Power. Energy Sources, 24(9), 803-815.
Kaygusuz, K. (2009). The Role of Hydropower for Sustainable Energy Development. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 4(4), 365-376.
Kaygusuz, K. (2010, June 24). Hydropower and the World's Energy Future. Energy Sources, 26(3), 215-224.
Lohani, B.N. (2009). Climate of Opportunity: Developing Asia's Potential to Address Climate Change. Global Journal of Emerging Market Economies, 1(3), 293-337.
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Project details. National CDM Authority, Government of India. Retrieved from http://www.cdmindia.gov.in/project_details_view_report.php?id=39
Pierpont, R.N. (1987). Slate Roofing. APT Bulletin, Association for Preservation Technology International, 19(2), 10-23.
Pandey, J.S., Kumar, R., Wate, S. R. & Chakrabarti, T. (2010, January- March). Methane Emissions from Wastewater, Wetlands, Mangroves and Hydroelectric Dams: Developing Appropriate Emission Factors for Region-Specific GHGS (ERG). Asia-Pacific Business Review, 6(1), 29-41.
Rao, A., (1980, November 1). Silicosis Deaths of Slate Workers. Economic and Political Weekly, 15(44), 1883.
SANDRP (2014). Hydropower in Himachal: Do we even know the costs?. Retrieved from
SANDRP (2015). Mission on Small Hydro Projects: Ignoring social and environmental impacts will not help. Retrieved from https://sandrp.wordpress.com/2015/02/16/draft-mission-on-small-hydro-projects-encouraging-investment-ignoring-impacts/
Thakur, B. (ed.) (2008). Environmental Degradation due to Slate Mining: A Case Study of Khanyara Mines, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh. Perspective Resource Management
in Developing Countries, Vol. 3, 232-243.
Rockwood, D.M., (1979). Water and Energy. GeoJournal, Springer, 3(5), 461-470.
Sinclair, A. John, (2003, February). Assessing the Impacts of Micro-Hydro Development in the Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Mountain Research and Development, International Mountain Society, 23(1), 11-13.
Soni, A.K. (1997). Utilization of Slate Mine Waste: A Study. Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI), Roorkee, Uttaranchal, India, 1-10.
The Official Website of District Kangra, .Kangra: Factfile. Retrieved from http://www.hpkangra.nic.in/factfile.html
The Times of India (2014). Budget sops to make investments in hydro power attractive. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Budget-sops-to-make-investments-in-hydro-power-attractive/articleshow/30079948.cms
Varun, R. P. & Bhat, I. K. Life Cycle Energy and GHG Analysis of Hydroelectric Power Development in India. International Journal of Green Energy, 7(4), 361-375.
Yu, P.S., Yang, T. C., Kuo, C.M. Chou, J.C & Tseng, H.W. (2014). Climate change impacts on reservoir inflows and subsequent hydroelectric power generation for cascaded hydropower plants. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59(6), 1196-1212.
Yüksel, I. (2007). Development of Hydropower: A Case Study in Developing Countries. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 2(2), 113-121.
Yüksel, I. (2009, January 2). Dams and Hydropower for Sustainable Development. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 4(1), 100-111.
Yüksel, I. (2009). Hydroelectric Power in Developing Countries. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 4(4), 377-386.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.