Terrorism and National Security in Africa: A Developmental Paradox, 1989-2014
Seen as a clash between Eastern (Islamic /Arabian) and Western (European/ Christian) civilization and culture, Africa may be expected not to be that much of a target for terrorism and terrorist organizations. Recently however, the clash of civilization thesis appears to have been debunked by the French President, Francoise Hollande, following the Bataclan incident. In spite of this claim however, mainstream terrorism is still largely seen as an attempt to get even with the West and their collaborators/ allies, for perceived wrongs or grievances; whatever they may be! It is largely in pursuit of the later objective that African countries and societies have become not just vulnerable but indeed targets of terrorist organizations and activities. This paper focuses on terrorism and terrorist activities in the various sub-regions of Africa since the end of the Cold War in 1989-East Africa and the Horn, North Africa, Central Africa and the Sahel region, Southern Africa and West Africa. Our intention is to determine the motivations, objectives and expected outcome of the terrorist activities on the developmental trajectory of the countries and societies affected. Using the instrumentalist and constrictivist models of conflict analysis in plural societies, the work relies heavily on secondary data and collections of security and intelligence agencies to reach its conclusions.
N. Chomsky, “The War Against Terrorism”. Encounter: Journal of Policy Research & Development Initiatives no 45 (2001): 146 – 176.
Jakkje Cilliers, “Terrorism in Africa”, African Security Review, 12 Vol. 4: (2003): 91.
Sylvanus I. Okoro, “Africa and Global Terrorism: The Nigerian Experience”, Simon O. Anyanwu and Isidore U. Nwanaju (eds), Boko Haram and Terrorism: Religious Conflicts and Dialogue Initiatives in Nigeria. (Enugu: Snaap Press, 2012), 3.
D. C. Rapoport, “Modern Terrorism: History and Special Features”, in T. H. Tan (ed), The Politics of Terrorism. (London/New York: Rutledge, 2006).
O. D. Oche, The Phenomenon of Terrorism, (Lagos: Fog Ventures, 2007).
A. K. Cronin, “Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism”, in International Security 27. no 3 (2003): 30-58.
Andrew Reeve, “Public Good”, in lain Mclean (ed), Oxford Concise Dictionary of Politics, (Oxford: OUP, 1996), 381.
Peter Burnell, “Development”, in lain Mclean (ed) Ibid, 137.
See Robert E.Jones & David H. Gray, “Bolstering Governance: The Need for a Multifaceted Approach to United States Counterterrorism Policy in the Horn of Africa Region”, in Global Security Studies, 4, vol 4 (Fall 2013), 141.
Jones & Gray, ibid, 43.
Rabasa, et al, Ungoverned Territories: Understanding and Reducing Terrorist Risks, (Santa Monica, Rand Corporation, 2007), 158.
Markus Virgil Hoehne, “Somalia: the Changing Spectrum of Islam and Counterterrorism”, in Horn of Africa Bulletin, No 2 (March/April 2015) 20.
See Bassam Tibi, Political Islam, World Politics and Europe: From jihadist to Institutional Islam, (Newyork, Routledge, Deepa Kumar, 2011), 20.
Ali Abdirahman Hersi, “The Arab Factor in Somali History: The Origins and the Development of the Arab Enterprise and Cultural Influences in the Somali Peninsula”, Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, (Los Angeles, University of California), in Hoehne, 20.
See Hoehne, 20 – 21.
Abdurahman M. Abdullahi Baadiyow, “The Islamic Movement in Somalia: A Historial Evolution with the case study of Islah Movement (1950 – 2000), Ph.D Thesis, Mac-Gill University, 2012, see also Abdurahman M. Abdullahi Baadiyow, Women, Islamists and the Military Regime in Somalia: The New Family Law and its Implications, in Markus Virgil Hoehne and Virginia Luling (eds), Milk and Peace, Drought and War’ Somali Culture, Society and Politics, (London, Hurst, 2010), 137 – 160.
Roland Marchal, “A Tentative Assessment of the Somali Harak at Al-Shabaab”, Journal of Eastern African Studies 3, no 3. (2009), Markus V. Hoehne, “Counter-Terrorism in Somalia, or How External Interferance Helped to Produce Militant Islamism. Online: http://hornofafrica-ssrc-org./somalia/.
Anita Peresin & Vlasta Zekulic, “Al-Qaeda Network and its Future in Africa, Journal of Science of the Military Academy of Land Forces, 174. No 4 (2014), 49. Hoehne however credits the terror group with that feat in the period between 2009 and 2011 when he declares that “it was the defacto government of the south; Hoehne, 22.
R. Wise, “Al-Shabaab”, in Center for Strategic and International Studies, case study”, no 2 (July 2011), 7. in Peresine & Zekulic, 50.
D. Shinn, “Al-Shabaab; Foreign Threat to Somalia:”, in Orbis (Spring 2009), 209.
V. Soria. “Global Jihad Sustained Through Africa”, UK Terrorism Analysis (April 2012) on http://www.rusi.org/analysis/commentary/ref: C4F7BDEE 390DBB/.
See. OECD Report 2002.
Andre Le Sage, “Terrorism: Threats and Vulnerabilities in Africa”, in Andre Le Sage (ed), African Counterterrorism Cooperation (Dulles, Virginia, Potomac Bks. 2007) 1-2; H. J. Poole, Terrorist trail – Backtrailing the Foreign Fighter (Esmerald Isle, Posterity Press, 2006), in Peresin & Zekulic, 45.
See US National Counterterrorism Centre, www.nctl.gov.
J. Masters, “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb”, Council on Foreign Relations, January 24, 2013, on http://www.cfr.org/north-africa/al-qaeda-islamicmaghreb-aqim/p12717.
US National Counterterrorism Centre, www.nctc.gov.
J. Sterling, Al-Qaeda in Northern Africa an “Afterhought” No More, CNN, February 1, 2012, in Peresin & Zekulic, 49. J. Masters, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Magheb, cited.
Peresin & Zekulic, 51. It must be stated that there was no Civic War between a so-called oilrich southern Christians and northern poor, but bellicose Muslim tribes in Nigeria in 2000, as asserted by Peresin and Zekulic.
Ferdinand O. Ottoh, “Changing Pattern of Warfare in Africa:. Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria”, Conflict Studies Quarterly, Special Issue (2015), 34.
Ufiem Maurice Ogbonnaya, Kanayo Ogujiuba and Nancy Stiegler, “Terrorism in Nigeria: Implications of Boko Haram’s Movember for Security and Stability in the ECOWAS Sub-Region”, African Security Review 23. (2. June 2014), 146.
See Global Terrorist Index Report, 2014, in Ottoh, 34.
Global Terrorist Index Report, 2014, 53.
Peresin and Zekulic, 51.
Roland Marchal, Boko-Haram and the Resilience of Militant Islam in Northern Nigeria, in Ogbonnaya, Ogujiuba and Stigler, 147.
See Michael Tanchum, Al-Qa’ida’s West African Advance, in Ogbonaya et al.
V. Soria, “Global Jihad Sustained Through Africa”, UK Terrorism Analysis (April 2012), in Peresin & Zekulic, 52.
Freedom C. Onuoha, “The Islamic Challenge”, in Adagba Okpaga, Sam C. Ugwu, and Okechukwu I. Eme. “Activities of Boko Haram and Insecurity Question in Nigeria”, Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 1 No 9 (2012), 77 – 99.
Khusrav Gaiballoev & Todd Sandler, “The Adverse Effect of Transnational and Domestic Terrorism on Growth in Africa”, CREATE Homeland Security Centre, Published Articles and Papers, Paper 152, (2010), 1.
For effects of terrorism on economies, see Philip Keefer and Northman Loayza (eds), Terrorism, Economic Development and Political Openness, (Cambridge, OUP, 2008).
See among others, Walter Enders, Adolfo Sachsida & Todd Sandler, “The Impact of Transnational Terrorism on US Foreign Direct Investment”, Political Research Quarterly 59, no. 4 (2006), 519 – 531; Brock S. Blomberg, Gregory Hess & Athinasios Orphanides, “The Macroeconomic Consequences of Terrorism”, Journal of Monetary Economics 51, no. 5 (2004), 1007 – 1032; Konstantinos Drakos & Ali M. Kutan, “Regional Effects of Terrorism in Three Mediterianean Countries”, Journal of Conflict Resolution 47. No 5 (2003), 621 – 641.
Todd Sandler & Walter Enders, Economic Consequences of Terrorism in Developed and Developing Countries: An Overview.
K. Sturman, “The AU Plan on Terrorism: Joining the Global War or Leading the African Battle”, African Security Review 11. No 4 (2002), 103 – 108.
Jakkie Cilliers, “Terrorism and Africa”, African Security Review, 12 No. 4 (2003), 91 – 103.
M. Levitsky, “Fighting Terrorism: A New Kind of Enemy and a New kind of War”, Defense Intelligence Journal 11 No. 1 (2002), 11 – 15.
J. R. Barth, L. Tong, D. McCarthy, T. Phgamiwasana & G. Yago, Economic Impacts of Global Terrorism: From Munich & Bali, (Milken Institute Research Report, 2006), 1 – 36.
S. B. Blomberg, G.O. Hess and A. Orphanides, “Macroeconomic Consequences of Terrorism”, Journal of Monetary Economics 51 No. 5 (2004), 1007 – 1032.
See OECD, 2002 Report.
Ufiem Maurice Ogbonnaya, Kanayo Ogujiuba & Nancy Stiegler, Terrorism in Nigeria, 153.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.