Newspapers and Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria: A Review
The main purpose of the paper is to discuss the media role in disaster risk reduction. The role of mass media in the society cannot be overstated. It has been identified as a key stakeholder as it informs, educates, mobilizes, and entertains among other roles. As an agent of development, media is identified as a crucial factor in disaster management. The paper examines the role being played by Nigerian newspapers in curbing flood devastation. With the growing frequency and devastation of flood disaster globally and in Nigeria in particular, the need for all stakeholders to collaborate is more urgent. In Nigeria, flood is the commonest disaster and a perennial problem. However, as crucial as finding solutions to this problem is, few researches have been conducted on the role of media in disaster risk reduction. The review reveals that Nigerian media is not proactive but reactive in its involvement. Findings show that media largely get involved during and after disaster occurrences, reporting human misery, tragedy loss of lives and property. Also, it is confirmed that rather than seeing self as a vital stakeholder, media still considers self as observer or passive participant. The study concludes by calling on the media to collaborate more with other stakeholders, disseminate early warning information, educate populace ahead of flood incidents and play other vital roles to complement other stakeholders efforts in reducing disaster risks.
Keywords: Disaster Risk Reduction; Nigerian newspapers; Flood; Media roles
Akinfeleye, R. (2010). Message and the messenger: Challenges for an envisioned development. Communication Review, Mass Communication Department, University of Lagos, Lagos - Nigeria. Vol. 4 No 3, September 2010.
Agbaje, T. (2013). Nigeria lost N2.6 trillion to 2012 flood disaster. Daily Newswatch. Retrieved from www.dailynewswatchng.com/2013/05/28/Nigeria - lost - N2.6 - trillion - to 2012 - flood - disaster – Nema-dg-to- 2012-disaster-nema-dg (accessed on September 10, 2014.
Ahmed, Z. (2013). Disaster risks and disaster management policies and practices in Pakistan: A critical analysis of disaster management Act 2010 of Pakistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol. 4, June 2013.pp 15-20. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420913000186 (accessed on February 2, 2014).
Barnes, M. D., Hanson, C. L., Novilla, L. M., Meacham, A.T. , McIntyre, E. & Erickson, B.C. (2008). Analysis of Media Agenda Setting During and After Hurricane Katrina: Implications for Emergency Preparedness, Disaster Response, and Disaster Policy. American Journal of Public Health Vol. 98(4). 2008. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18309133(accessed on December 4, 2013).
Carignan, S.A. (2013). Factors Associated with Collaboration in Disaster Management. A Master of Science (MSc) Dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty, North Dakota State University. Retrieved from http://library.ndsu.edu/tools/dspace/load/?file=/repository/bitstream/handle/10365/23121/Carignan_Factors%20Associated%20with%20Collaboration%20in%20EM%20Response.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed on February 15, 2014).
CDEMA (2010). Flood Preparedness. The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency.
Daramola, I. (2006). History and Development of Mass Media in Nigeria. Lagos: Rotham Press Limited.
Duhe, S.F. (2008) Communicating Katrina: A Resilient Media. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. August 2008, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 112-127.Retrieved from www.ijmed.org/articles/291/download/ (accessed on January 3, 2014).
Enten, H. J. (November 7, 2013). Philippines wait for Super Typhoon. Guardian.com. Retrieved on http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/07/philippines-super-typhoon-haiyan-hurricane-katrina(accessed on December 1, 2013).
Fatti, C.E. (2014). Community Adaptation and Mitigation of Storm and Flood Risk: The Influence of Knowledge and Community Perceptions in the case study of Ekurhuleni. An MSc Dissertation submitted to School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand. Retrieved fromhttp://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10539/13703/C.E.%20Fatti%20-%20Masters%20Dissertation%20final%20version.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed on February 14, 2014).
FGN (2013). Nigeria Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) 2012 Flood. A Report by the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Haddow, G. & Haddow, K. (2014). Disaster Communications in a Changing Media World, 2nd Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Haigh , R. (2014). "3rd World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015". International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, Vol. 5:4. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Hodgkinson, P. E., & Stewart, M. (1991). Coping with Catastrophe. A Handbook of Disaster Management. London: Routledge.
Kakonge, J.O. (2012). Improving the Role of the Media in Disaster Management for Africa. Global Policy. Retrieved from http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/21/06/2012/improving-role-media-disaster-management-africa(accessed on October 28, 2014).
Killenberg, G. M. (2008). Public Affairs Reporting Now: News of, By and for the People. USA: Elsevier Inc.
Lowrey, W., Evans, W., Gower, K. K., Robinson, J. A., Ginter, P. M., McCormick, L. C., & Abdolrasulnia, M. (2007). Effective media communication of disasters: pressing problems and recommendations. BMC Public Health, 7(1), 97.
Luna, E.M. (2001). Disaster mitigation and preparedness: the case of NGOs in the Philippines. PubMed.gov., US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Sep; 25(3):pp. 216-26.
Macnamara, J. (2003). Media content analysis: Its uses, benefits and best practice methodology. Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, 6:1, 1–34.
Manyena, S. B. (2013). Disaster Event: Window of opportunity to implement Global disaster policies? Jamba, Journal of Disaster Risk Studies Vol 5, No 1 (2013). Retrieved from http://www.jamba.org.za/index.php/jamba/article/view/99/231(accessed on September 12, 2014).
McConnell, A. & Drennan, L. (2006). Mission Impossible? Planning and preparing for crisis. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. Vol. 14, No. 2, June 2006. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-5973.2006.00482.x/pdf (accessed on July 15, 2014).
Meier, P. (2009). Disaster Theory for Techies.iRevolution: From Innovation to Revolution. May 15, 2009.Retrieved from http://irevolution.net/2009/05/15/disaster-theory-for-techies/ (accessed on January 9, 2014).
NEMA (2010). Nigeria: National Disaster Framework - Policy, Plans & Statements. Retrieved from www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/policies/v.php (accessed on October 22, 2014).
NEMA (2013). Annual Reports 2012. National Emergency Management Agency (The Presidency), Abuja, Nigeria. June 2013.
Newsome, N. (2012).The Regional and Local Disaster Response Mechanism: The Media as Active Participants. Commonwealth Broadcasting Association. Retrieved from www.cba.org.uk/wp-content /uploads/2012/10/Nadene-Newsome.pptx (accessed on February 11, 2014).
Odufunwa, B. O, Adedeji, O. A, Oladesu, J. O. & Bongwa, A. (2012). Flood of Fury in Nigeria Cities. Journal of Sustainable Development. Vol.5 (7), July 2012. pp 69-79.
Ogwezzy, A.O., (2010). Disaster and Emergencies: A Critical Analysis of Information Management in Nigeria. Lagos: UNILAG Communication Review Vol. 4 No 3, September 2010.
Ojo, O. E. (2005). Nigeria: Towards a National Stakeholders’ Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. Disaster Reduction in Africa. ISDR Informs, Issue 5/July 2005. Retrieved from http://www.preventionweb.net/files/8554_Issue52005englishISDRinforms1.pdf (accessed on February 14, 2014).
Palttala, P., Boano, C., Lund, R., & Vos, M. (2012). Communication Gap in Disaster Management: Perceptions by Experts from Governmental and Non-Governmental Organisations. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol. 20.No. 1, March 2012. Retrieved from www.globalalliancepr.org/.../wprf12_research-colloquium-proceedings (accessed on February 13, 2014).
Perez-Lugo, M. (2001). The Mass Media and Disaster Awareness in Puerto Rico. Organisation and Environment, Vol.14 No.1, March 2001.pp.55.73.Sage Publications Inc. Retrieved from http://oae.sagepub.com/content/14/1/55.full.pdf+html(accessed on January 10, 2014.)
Quarantelli, E. L. (2006). Catastrophes are different from disasters: Some implications for crisis planning and managing drawn from Katrina. Retrieved from http://understanding Katrina.ssrc.org/Quarantelli, (accessed on January 3, 2014).
Quarantelli, E. L. (1991). More and Worst Disasters in the Future. Preliminary paper University of Delaware Disaster Research Center. Retrieved from http://udspace.udel.edu/bitstream/handle/19716/530/PP158.pdf?sequence=3(accessed on January 10, 2014).
Quarantelli, E. L. & Wenger, D. (1990). A Cross – Societal Comparison of Disaster News Reporting in Japan and the United States. Preliminary Paper. University of Delaware Disaster Research Center. Retrieved from dspace.udel.edu/bitstream/handle/19716/518/PP146.pdf?sequence=3, accessed on in January 4, 2014.
Rattien, S. (1990). The role of the media in hazard mitigation and disaster management. PubMed.gov., US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20958692(accessed on December 4, 2013).
Scanlon, J. (2007). Research about the mass media and disaster: Never (well hardly ever) the twain shall meet. Disciplines, Disasters and Emergency Management. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher. Pp.75-94.
Shaba, H.A (2005). National Disaster Management System in Nigeria. Disaster Reduction in Africa - ISDR Informs, Issue 5/July 2005. Retrieved from www.internal-displacement.org/8025708F004CE90B/.../nigeriappt.ppt (accessed on February 14, 2014).
Spahiro, B. (2011). Japan Aftermath Demands “Unrelenting” Reporting. Dart Center for Journalismand Trauma. March 11, 2011. Retrieved from http://dartcenter.org/content/uncharted-territory#.Up0dPtLOlOx(accessed on December 3, 2013).
Statistic View (2015). Flood toll to triple in next 15 years. Retrieved from http://www.statisticsviews.com/details/news/7554421/Flood-Toll-Will-Triple-in-Next-15-Years.html (accessed on March 9, 2015).
Sharareporters (2012a). National Broadcast: Jonathan Donates N17.6bn to Flooded States. Sharareporters October 9, 2012. .Retrieved from (Sharareporters.com/2012/10/09/national -broadcast- jonathan-donates-N17.6bn -to -flooded –States (accessed on September 6, 2014).
Stanoevska-Slabeva, K., Zotto , C.D., & Giardina, M. (2012). Foreword .In Stanoevska- Slabeva, K., Zotto , C.D., and Giardina, M. ((eds) Participatory Media, Journalism and Communication; Changing Values, Roles and Business. Swiss Association of Communication and Media Research Annual Conference Proceedings 2012.Faculty of Economic and Business, Academy of Journalism and Media, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 20-21 April, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/5179233/Participatori_Media_and_Journalism_2012 (accessed on January 11, 2014).
Tariq, M., Khan, S.U., and Rahman,Z.( 2011). Evaluation of Disaster Preparedness and Management: A Comparative Study of Haiti and Pakistan. Retrieved from http://journal-archieves8.webs.com/876-882.pdf (accessed on October 5, 2014).
Toennesen, C., Hodgson, S., & Mimmack, F. (2013). Mirrors or Movers: Framing the Debate about Impact of Media Content. Retrieved from http://mirrorsormovers.com/_media/documents/report.pdf (accessed on November 30, 2013).
UNISDR (2009). Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction: risk and poverty in a changing climate. The United Nations Non –Governmental Liaison Service (UN-NGLS). Retrieved from http://www.un-ngls.org/spip.php?page=article_s&id_article=996 (accessed on February 14, 2014).
Ugokwe, J. S. (2005). Disaster Management & Development: An Overview. Disaster Reduction in Africa- ISDR Informs, Issue 5/July 2005. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/8554_Issue52005englishISDRinforms1.pdf (accessed on February 14, 2014).
World Population Review (2014). Nigeria Population 2014. Retrieved from http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/nigeria-population/ (accessed on February 20, 2014).
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.