Effective English Language Teaching Strategies and Instructions: A Classroom Vision for Teachers

Nor Adrian M. Palaming


A teaching strategy is an organized and systematic procedure employed by a teacher in making students learn.  It consists of steps which are logically arranged. A teacher employs it to make the learning process a more directed undertaking and to make it highly efficient, thus maximizing the teaching output. Without it, learning becomes cumbersome and a big waste in terms of efforts, time, and even money. The teaching strategy is primarily a matter of organization of materials and effort to get certain definite things done. The organization of the content to be taught and to be learned is part of this method.

 Teaching strategy in English teaching is an organized, orderly, systematic and well-planned procedure aimed at facilitating and enhancing student’s learning. It is undertaken according to some rule which is usually psychological in nature. That is, it considers primary the abilities, needs and interests of the learners. It is done to achieve certain specific aims of instruction. To make it as an effective instrument, it should be presented with certain amount of efficiency and ease.


English Language Teaching, Teaching Strategies, Education, Skills in Teaching English, Reading, Writing, Grammar, Vocabulary, Speaking and Listening

Full Text:



Alexander, K., & Alexander, M. D. (1985). American public school law. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.

Blatner, W. (2006). Teaching content for language development. Unpublished paper. School of Education, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Bloom, D., Katz, L., Solsken, J., Willett, J., & Wilson Keenan, J. (2000, January/February). Interpellations of family/community and classroom literacy practices. Journal of Educational Research, 93(3), 155–163.

Caine, R. N., & Caine, G. (1991). Making connections: Teaching and the human brain. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Calderon, M. (2007). Teaching reading to English language learners, grades 6–12. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Calkins, L. (1994). The art of teaching writing (new ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Cohen, E. (1994). Designing groupwork: Strategies for the heterogeneous classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

Collier, V. P. (1987). Age and rate of acquisition of second language for academic purposes. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 617–641.

Crandall, J., Jaramillo, A., Olsen, L., & Peyton, J. K. (2002). Using cognitive strategies to develop English language and literacy. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Cummins, J. (1981). Age on arrival and immigrant second language learning in Canada: A reassessment. Applied Linguistics, 2, 132–149.

Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon, United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters.

Diaz Rico, L., & Weed, K. (2006). The cross-cultural language and academic development handbook: A complete K–12 reference guide (3rd ed.). New York: Pearson.

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English language learners: The SIOP model (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Edwards, M. (1999). Pa Lia's first day. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co.

Faltis, C. (2001). Joinfostering: Teaching and learning in multilingual classrooms (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

Faltis, C., & Hudelson, S. (1998). Bilingual education in elementary and secondary school communities: Toward understanding and caring. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Freeman, D., & Freeman, Y. (2000). Teaching reading in multilingual classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Gardner, H. (1987, May). Beyond IQ: Education and human development. Harvard Educational Review, 57(2), 187–193.

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind and multiple intelligences: The theory in practice, 10th anniversary edition. New York: Basic Books.

Goeke, J. (2009). Explicit instruction: A framework for meaningful direct teaching. New York: Pearson.

Gonzalez, J. M., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Programs that prepare teachers to work effectively with students learning English. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Green, J. (2005). Tornadoes. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.

Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension for understanding and engagement. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

Haynes, J. (2007). Getting started with English language learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Haynes, J. (2008, Fall). Holding effective parent conferences. Essential Teacher, 5(3), 6–7.

Haynes, J. (2009a, March). Teaching reading comprehension. Essential Teacher, 6(1), 6–7.

Haynes, J. (2009b, June). What good readers do. Essential Teacher, 6(2), 6–7.

Haynes, J. (2009c, September). What else good readers do. Essential Teacher, 6(3), 6–7.

Hill, J., & Flynn, K. (2008, Winter). Asking the right questions: Teachers' questions can build students' English language skills. Journal of Staff Development, 29(1), 46–52.

Hinkel, E. (2009, March 26). How to adapt a textbook to meet students' learning goals. Paper presented at the annual conference of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Denver, Colorado.

Hudelson, S. (2001). Literacy development in second language children. In F. Genesee (Ed.), Educating second language children: The whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community (pp. 129–158). New York: Cambridge Language Education.

Hunter, M. (1982). Mastery teaching: Increasing instructional effectiveness in secondary schools, college and universities. El Segundo, CA: TIP Publications.

Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Cooperative Learning.

Kagan, S., Kagan, M., & Kagan, L. (2000). Reaching social studies standards through cooperative learning: Providing for all learners in general education classrooms. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Inc.

Keene, E., & Zimmermann, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford, United Kingdom: Pergamon Press.

Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lappan, G., Fey, J. T., Fitzgerald, W. M., Friel, S. N., & Phillips, E. D. (2006). Connected mathematics 2: Stretching and shrinking: Understanding similarity. New York: Pearson.

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (2003). The essential conversation: What parents and teachers can learn from each other. New York: Ballantine Books.

Levine, E. (2007). Henry's freedom box. New York: Scholastic.

Luke, A. (1994). Social construction of literacy in the classroom. Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan.

Marzano, R., & Pickering, D. (2005). Building academic vocabulary: Teachers' manual. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Menzella, L. (2008). Making reading come alive. Voices, 3.

Miller, D. (2002). Reading with meaning. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

Northeastern University Institute on Race and Justice. (2004, May 4). Massachusetts racial and gender profiling technical report. Retrieved August 17, 2009, from http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/irjsite_docs/technicalreport.pdf

Putnam, J. (1997). Cooperative learning in diverse classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Radencich, M., & McKay, L. (Eds.). (1995). Flexible grouping for literacy in the elementary grades. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Rothstein-Fish, C., & Trumbull, E. (2008). Managing diverse classrooms: How to build on students' cultural strengths. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Scribner, J., Young, M., & Pedroza, A. (1999). Building collaborative relationships with parents. In P. Reyes, J. D. Scribner, & A. Paredes-Scribner (Eds.), Lessons from high-performing Hispanic schools: Creating learning communities (pp. 36–60). New York: Teachers College Press.

Short, D., Himmel, J., & Richards, C. (2009, March 27). Developing science curriculum units with the SIOP model. Paper presented at the annual conference of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Denver, Colorado.

Sizer, T. (2004). Horace's compromise. Boston: Houghton Mifflin/Harcourt.

Slavin, R. E. (1991, February). Synthesis of research on cooperative learning. Educational Leadership, 48(50), 71–82.

Slavin, R. E. (1995). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 43–69.

Sylwester, R., & Cho, J. Y. (1992). What brain research says about paying attention. Educational Leadership, 50(4), 71–76.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing contexts. Psychological Review, 96, 506–520.

Vasquez, V., Muise, M. R., Adamson, S. C., & Heffernan, L. (2003). Getting beyond "I like the book": Creating space for critical literacy in K–6 classrooms. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Zacarian, D. (1996). Learning how to teach and design curriculum for the heterogeneous class: An ethnographic study of a task-based cooperative learning group of native English and English as a second language speakers in a graduate education course. Dissertation Abstract International. (UMI no. 963 9055)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.