Colorectal Cancer‐Related Health Worries and Functional Limitations among Older Adult, Long‐Term Cancer Survivors

Rukhsana Kausar, Abier Javaid, Sidra Khan


Cancer and aging are associated with functional limitations; however, the reasons for these limitations are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine potential reasons of functional limitations among older long-term colorectal cancer survivors using a newly developed assessment tool, the Physical Function Perception Scale (PFPS).The particular reasons for functional limitations are currently unknown for older long-term colorectal cancer survivors. To provide the best preventative and rehabilitative care, however, it is necessary to understand these reasons. Therefore, the ability to identify modifiable reasons (e.g., pain, balance problems, fatigue) of functional limitations could have important implications for improving long-term outcomes in older cancer survivors (Bennett et al., 2002; Leville et al, 2004; Whitson et al, 2009). Although a number of valid assessment tools are available, a valid self-report assessment tool that allows individuals to identify the reasons for their functional limitations is currently not available.


Colorectal Cancer, Functional Limitations, Older Adult, Long‐Term Cancer Survivors

Full Text:



Arem, H., Pfeiffer, R.M., Engels, E.A., Alfano, C.M., Hollenbeck, A., Park, Y., & Matthews, C.E. (2014). Pre- and postdiagnosis physical activity, television viewing, and mortality among patients with colorectal cancer in the national institutes of health-AARP diet and health study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32.

Bean, J.F., Olveczky, D.D., Kiely, D.K., LaRose, S.I., & Jette, A.M. (2011). Performance-based vs patient-reported physical function: what are the underlying predictors? Physical Therapy, 91, 1804-1810.

Bennett, J.A., Stewart, A.L., Kayser-Jones, J., & Glaser, D. (2002). The mediating effect of pain and fatigue on level of functioning in older adults. Nursing Research, 51, 254-265

Bennett, J.A., Winters-Stone, K., & Nail, L. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring physical functioning in cancer survivorship studies. Oncology Nursing Forum, 33, 41-49.

Bryant, L.L., Grigsby, J., Swenson, C., Scarbro, S. & Baxter, J. (2007). Chronic pain increases the risk of decreasing physical performance in older adults: The San Luis Valley health and aging study. The Journals of Gerontology, 62A, 989-996.

Courneya, K.S., Friedenreich, C.M., Quinney, H.A., Fields, A.L.A., Jones, L.W., & Fairey, A.S. (2003). A randomized trial of exercise and quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors. European Journal of Cancer Care, 12, 347-357.

Deimling, G.T., Arendt, J.A., Kypriotakis, G., & Bowman, K.F. (2009). Functioning of older, long-term cancer survivors: The role of cancer and comorbidities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57, S289-S292.

Deimling, G.T., Sterns, S., Bowman, K.F., & Kahana, B. (2005). The health of older-adult, long-term cancer survivors. Cancer Nursing, 28, 415-424.

Deimling, G.T., Sterns, S., Bowman, K.F., & Kahana, B. (2007). Functioning and activity participation restrictions among older adult, long-term cancer survivors. Cancer Investigation, 25, 106-116.

Dunlop, D.D., Manheim, L.M., Song, J., & Chang, R.W. (2002). Gender and ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57B, S221-233.

Ettinger, W.H, Fried, L.P., Harris, T., Shemanski, L., Schulz, R., Robbins, J. (1994). Self-reported causes of physical disability in older people: The cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 1035-1044.

Fielding, R.A., Katula, J., Miller, M.E., Abbott-Pillola, K., Jordan, A., Glynn, N.W., Goodpaster, B., Walkup, M.P., King, A.C., & Rejeski, W.J. (2007). Activity adherence and physical function in older adults with functional limitations. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39, 1997-2004.

Fried, L.P., Ferrucci, L. Darer, J., Williamson, J.D., & Anderson, G. (2004). Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: Implications for improved targeting and care. Journal of Gerontology: Biological and Medical Sciences, 59, M255-M263.

Fried, T.R., Bradley, E.H., Williams, C.S., & Tinetti, M.E. (2001). Functional disability and health care expenditures for older persons. Archives Internal Medicine, 161, 2602-2607.

Friedmann, J.M., Elasy, T., & Jensen, G.L. (2001). The relationship between body mass index and self-reported functional limitation among older adults: A gender difference. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49, 398-403.

Gill, T.M. (2010). Assessment of function and disability in longitudinal studies. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58, S308-S312.

Haggar, F.A. & Boushey, R.P. (2009) Colorectal cancer epidemiology: Incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, 22, 191-197.

Haggar, F.A. & Boushey, R.P. (2009) Colorectal cancer epidemiology: Incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, 22, 191-197.

Hirsch, S., Salazar, A.S., Pia de la Maza, M., Molina, A.M., Navarrete, A., Lera, L., Barrera, G., Gattas, V., & Bunout, D. (2008). Karnofsky performance scale and mini nutritional assessment predict mortality in geriatric patients. Open Longevity Science, 2, 17-22.

Hung, R., Krebs, P., Coups, E.J., Feinstein, M.B., Park, B.J., Burkhalter, J., & Ostroff, J.S. (2011). Fatigue and functional impairment in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer survivors. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 41, 426-435.

Jette, A.M. (2009). Toward a common language of disablement. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 64A, 1165-1168.

Keeler, E. Guralnik, J.M., Tian, H., Wallace, R.B., & Reuben, D.B. (2010). The impact of functional status on life expectancy in older persons. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 65, 727-733.

King, A.C. & Guralnik, J.M. (2010). Maximizing the potential of an aging population. Journal of the American Medical Association, 304, 1944-1945.

Kurtz, M.E., Kurtz, J.C., Stommel, M., Given, C.W., & Given, B. (1997). Loss of physical functioning among geriatric cancer patients: Relationships to cancer site, treatment, comorbidity and age. European Journal of Cancer, 33, 2352-2358.

Leveille, S.G., Bean, J., Ngo, L., McMullen, W., & Guralnik, J.M. (2007). The pathway from musculoskeletal pain to mobility difficulty in older disabled women. Pain, 128, 69-77

Leveille, S.G., Fried, L.P., McMullen, W., & Guralnik, J.M. (2004). Advancing the taxonomy of disability in older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 59A, 86-93.

Liang, J., Bennett, J.M., Shaw, B.A., Quinones, A.R., Ye, W., Xu, Xiao, Ofstedal, M.B. (2008). Gender differences in functional status in middle and older age: Are there any age variations? Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 63B, S282-S292.

Lin, H.W., & Bhattacharyya, N. (2012). Balance disorders in the elderly: Epidemiology and functional impact. The Laryngoscope, 122, 1858-1861.

Manini, T. (2011). Development of physical disability in older adults. Current Aging Science, 4, 184-191.

Manini, T.M. & Pahor, M. (2009). Physical activity and maintaining physical function in older adults. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, 28-31.

Marsh, A.P, Rejeski, W.J., Lang, W., Miller, M.E., & Messier, S.P. (2003). Baseline balance and functional decline in older adults with knee pain: The observational arthritis study in senior. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 331-339.

Merrill, S.S. Seeman, T.E., Kasl, S.V., & Berkman, L.F. (1997). Gender differences in the comparison of self-reported disability and performance measures. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 52A, M19-M26.

Nagi, S.Z. (1991). Disability concepts revisited: implications for prevention. In A.M. Pope & A.R. Tarlov (Eds.). Disability in America: A National Agenda for Prevention (pp 309-327). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Naumann Murtagh, K. & Hubert, H.B. (2004). Gender differences in physical disability among an elderly cohort. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1406-1411.

Nikolova, R. Demers, L., Beland, F., & Girouz, F. (2011). Transitions in the functional status of disabled community-living older adults over a 3-year follow-up period. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 52, 12-17.

Pinar, R. (2005). Reliability and construct validity of the SF-36 in Turkish cancer patients. Quality of Life Research, 14, 259-264.

Ramsey, S.D., Berry, K., Moinpour, C., Giedzinska, A., & Andersen, M.R. (2002). Quality of life in long term survivors of colorectal cancer. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 97, 1228-1234.

Rohlfsen, L.S. & Jacobs Kronenfeld, J.J. (2014). Gender differences in functional health: Latent curve analysis assessing differential exposure. Journals of Gerontology, 69, 590-602.

Rothrock, N.E., Hays, R.D., Spritzer, K., Yount, S.E., Riley, W., & Cella, D. (2010). Relative to the general US population, chronic diseases are associated with poorer health-related quality of life as measure by the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 63, 1195-1204.

Salzman, B. (2010). Gait and balance disorders in older adults. American Family Physician, 82, 61-68.

Sanchez-Jimenez, A., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Delgado-Garcia, G., Molina-Barea, R., Fernandez-Lao, C., Galiano-Castillo, C., & Arroyo-Morales, M. (2015). Physical impairments and quality of life of colorectal cancer survivors: a case-control study. European Journal of Cancer Care, 24, 642-649.

Sweeney, C., Schmitz, K.H., Lazovich, D., Virnig, B.A., Wallace, R.B., & Folsom, A.R. (2006). Functional limitations in elderly female cancer survivors. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 98, 521-529.

Verbrugge, L.M. & Jette, A.M. (1994). The disablement process. Social Science and Medicine, 38, 1-14.

Whitson, H.E., Sanders, L.L., Pieper, C.F., Morey, M.C., Oddone, E.Z., Gold, D.T., & Cohen, H.J. (2009). Correlation between symptoms and function in older adults with comorbidity. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57, 676-682.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.