Comparative Assessment of Quality of Raw and Pasteurised Milk: A Review

RENUKA MALIK

Abstract


Milk is an important component of daily diet intake of consumers all over the world. They contain nutrients which are essential for healthy body and mind. One of the biggest challenges associated with milk is that it is a highly perishable commodity and can be a source of bacterial infection when consumed raw. Both developing and developed countrieshave shown that raw milk collection and its transportation, technical, economical and organisational systemhas problems. This review critically evaluates the claims of raw milk and describes why raw milk has higher total bacterial counts and pathogens observed in these literatures from different studies around the world. The study also analysespasteurized milkand how pasteurization process helps to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption and the presence of pathogens in raw milk.

Keywords


Raw milk, pasteurised milk, health hazards, microbiological quality assessment, coliforms.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bahman, S., Yadav, N., Kumar, A., Ganguly, S., Garg, V. and Marwaha, S.S. (2012). Impact of household practices on the nutritional profile of milk Indian. Journal of Public Health, 56, 82-87.

Bapat, P., Nandy, S. K., Wangikar, P. and Venkatesh, K. V. (2006). Quantification of metabolically active biomass using Methylene Blue dye Reduction Test (MBRT) measurement of CFU in about 200’s. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 65(1), 107-116.

Barnes, M.P., Cullinan, P., Athanasaki, S., Mac Neill, A. M., Hole, J., Harris, S., Kalogeraki, M., Chatzinikolaou, N., Drakonakis, V., Bibaki-Liakou, A. J., Newman Taylor and Bibakis, I. (2001). Crete: does farming explain urban and rural differences in atopy? Clin Exp Allergy, 31, 822-823.

Bean, N.H., Goulding, J.S., Lao, C. and Angulo, F.J. (1996). Surveillance of food borne disease outbreaks—United States, 1988–1992. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report, 45(SS-5), 1.

Bieli, C.W., Eder, R., Freitas, C., Braun-Fahrlander, W., Klimecki, M., Waser, J., Riedler, E., Von Mutius, A., Scheynius, G., Pershagen, G., Doekes, R., Lauener, F. D. and Martinez (2007). A polymorphism in CD14 modifies the effect of farm milk consumption on allergic diseases and CD14 gene expression. Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology, 120, 1308-15.

Bonfoh, B. and Simbe, C.F. (2006). Effect of washing and disinfecting containers on the microbiological quality of fresh milk sold in Bamako (Mali). Food Control, 17 (2), 153-161.

Bramley, A.J. and McKinnon, C.H. (1990). The microbiology of raw milk. Robinson R.K. (ed.) Elsevier Applied Science, London. Dairy Microbiology, 1, 163-208.

Bryan, F.L. (1983). Epidemiology of milk-borne diseases. Journal of Food Protection, 46, 637-649.

Coorevits, A., De Jonghe, V., Vandroemme, J., Reekmans, R., Heyrman, J., Messens, W., De Vos, P. and Heyndrickx, M. (2008). Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic-spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms. System. Appl. Microbiology, 31(2), 126-40.

Dumalisile, P., Witthuhn, R.C. and Britz, T.J. (2005). Impact of different pasteurization temperatures on the survival of microbial contaminants isolated from pasteurized milk. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 58, 74-82.

Etter, E., P., Donado, F., Jori, A., Caron, F., Goutard, and Roger, F. (2006). Risk analysis and bovine tuberculosis, a re-emerging zoonoses. Annual NewYork Academic Science, 1081, 61-73.

FDA. (2009). Public meeting on economically motivated adulteration. Available from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2009-04-06/pdf/E9-7843.pdf. (Accessed September 21, 2016).

Food Safety and Standard Authority of India FSSAI (2013). Manual of methods of analysis of foods: milk and milk products. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

Grimaud, P., Sserunjogi, M. L.and Grillet, N. (2007). An Evaluation of Milk Quality in Uganda: value chain assessment and recommendations. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, 7, (5), 20-27.

Gutierrez Garcia, J. M. (2006). Milk as a vector of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans in Spain: a historical perspective. Vet Heritage, 29, 41-4.

Heeschen, Q.H. (1994). Introduction: Monograph on the significance of pathogenic microorganisms in raw milk. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, 8-11.

Ibraheem, Kutty and Sheeba Khamer. (2004). Milk Production and Processing, Delhi, Darya Publishing House, 89-122.

Jeffrey, D.C. and Wilson, J. (2007). Effect of mastitis-related bacteria on total bacterial count of bulk milk supplies. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 40(2), 23-26.

Kameni, A., Imele, H. and Mbanya, N.J. (2002). An alternative heat treatment for milk pasteurization in Cameroon. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 55 (1), 40-43.

Keene, W. E. (1999). Lessons from investigations of food borne disease outbreaks. Jama, 281, 1845-47.

Khan, J. A., Rathore, R. S., Shaheen Khan and Iqbal Ahmad (2013). Microbiological quality of raw milk samples in Bareilly City, India. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 1(1S), 20-22.

Kilpelainen, M., Terho, E.O., Helenius, H. and Koskenvuo, M. (2000). Farm environment in childhood prevents the development of allergies. Clinical Exp. Allergy 30, 201-208.

Langer, A.J., Ayers, T., Grass, J., Lynch, M., Angulo, F.J. and Mahon, B.E. (2012). Non- pasteurized dairy products, disease outbreaks and state laws – United States, 1993-2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 385-391.

Lujerdean, A., Bunea, A., and Mireşan, V. (2007). Seasonal Related changes in the major nutrients of Bovine milk (total protein, lactose, total fat and dry matter). Cluj-Napoca: University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, 52(1), 25.

Nanu, E., Latha, C., Sunil, B., Prejit, Thomas M., and Venon, K. V. (2007). Quality assurance and public health safety of raw milk at the production point. Asian Journal of Food Technology, 2, 145–152.

Oprean, L. (1996). Research studies regarding the biotechnological qualities of goat milk. Sibiu, 42(1), 290.

Perkin, M. R., and Strachan, D. P. (2006).Which aspects of the farming lifestyle explain the inverse association with childhood allergy? Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology, 117, 1374-81.

Perkin, M. R. (2007). Unpasteurized milk: health or hazard? Clinical Exp. Allergy, 37, 627-30.

Potter, M. E., Kaufmann, A.F., Blake, P. A. and Feldman, R. A. (1984). Unpasteurized milk. The hazards of a health fetish. Jama, 252, 2048-52.

Raj, J. M., Ajay Kumar Bhattacharya, A. and Rekha, V. B. (2010). A study on microbial quality of raw and pasteurized milk sold in Pondicherry. Indian Journal of Veterinary Public Health, 8(2), 121-125.

Remes, S.T., Iivanainen, K., Koskela, H. and Pekkanen, J. (2003).Which factors explain the lower prevalence of atopy amongst farmer’s children? Clinical Exp Allergy, 33,427-34.

Richter, R. L., Ledford, R. A. and Murphy, S. C. (1992). Milk and milk products. Vanderzant, C. and D.F. Splittstoesser (Eds.). Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 3rd Edn., Am. Public Health Assoc., Washington DC., 837-838.

Riedler, J., Eder, W., Oberfeld, G. and Schreuer, M. (2000). Austrian children living on a farm have less hay fever, asthma and allergic sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy, 30,194-200.

Riedler, J., Braun-Fahrlander, C., Eder, W., Schreuer, M., Waser, M., Maisch, S., Carr, D., Schierl, R., Nowak, D. and von Mutius, E. (2001). Exposure to farming in early life and development of asthma and allergy: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet, 358, 1129-33.

Ryser, E.T. (1998). Public health concerns. Marth, E.H. and Steele, J.L. (ed.) Applied Dairy Microbiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Mareel Dekker, Inc, New York, 263-404.

Sharma, V., Singh, K. P., Sharma, R. K. and Nema, S. P. (2005). Microbial quality of buffalo milk and its public health significance. Buffalo Bulletin, 24(4), 78-83.

Sharp, J.C.M., Peterson, G.M. and Barrett, N.J. (1985). Pasteurization and the control of milk borne infection in Britain. British Medical Journal, 291, 463-464.

Simon, M. and Hansen, A.P (2001). Effect of Various Dairy Packaging Materials on the Shelf Life and Flavor of Pasteurized Milk. Journal of Dairy Sciences, 84 (4), 767-73.

Srujana, G., Reddy, A. R., Reddy, V. K. and Reddy, S. R. (2011). Microbial quality of raw and pasteurized milk samples collected from different places of Warangal District, (A.P.). International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2(2), B-143.

Steele, M.L., McNab, W.B., Poppe, C., Griffiths, M.W., Chen, S., Degrandis, S.A., Fruhner, L.C., Larkin, C.A., Lynch, J.A. and Odumeru, J.A. (1997). Survey of Ontario bulk tank raw milk for food borne pathogens. Journal of Food Protection, 60, 1341-1346.

Suguna, M., Rajeev Bhat, and Wan Nadiah, W.A. (2012). Microbiological quality evaluation of goat milk collected from small-scale dairy farms in Penang Island, Malaysia. International Food Research Journal, 19 (3), 1241-1245.

Swartz, R., Jooste, P.J. and Novelloj, C. (1984). Prevalence and types of bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in Bloemfontein dairy herds. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 55, 61-64.

Szteyn, J., Wiszniewska, A., Fus-Szewczyk, M. M. and Cichosz, W., (2005). Changes in microbiological quality of raw milk from the Region of Warmia and Mazury in 1998– 2003. Veterinary Journal of Zoo. Technology, 32, 54.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.