Human Rights Violations in Punjab: Religion and Political Violence



The source of violations of human rights in Punjab lies in its manifold complexities of a conflict-ridden society. The articulation of human rights becomes an extremely challenging and tangled enterprise in a society with a long history of sectarian divisions. Punjab has witnessed a political cycle of violent and peaceful conflict between the state and its opponents. This article has focused on three periods, as described below, of violent conflict between the state and the forces opposed to the state. While it is cavalier to think that militant politics would never re-emerge in Punjab, the state’s capacity to absorb political stress and endure democratic means in the period since the extirpation of political militancy has been strong enough.

           The research has heavily depended on books as primary source for this research. Besides that, newspapers, magazines, internet has provided secondary references as far as data collection is concerned. The study has used the standard historical analytical method of political analysis. This article finds that Punjab has experienced various ups and downs in its political history and human rights violations have been a major factor in shaping its politics where democratic forces have been equally important. Punjab has witnessed political violence under special circumstances. Its history in between these periods has been largely tranquil with few political killings and human rights abuses. This study has shown that most human rights violations occur in the hands of the state; the more draconian the state becomes the more violent are the repercussions.


Political violence, human rights, violation, terrorism, Khalistan, militancy, killings.

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