Abubakar Yusuf Sanyinna


Purpose – This is an exploratory research aimed at unveiling many myths surrounding the prevalence of poverty in the Nigerian State of Sokoto. It attempts to disclose the failure of previous conventional poverty-alleviation programs and suggests ways to reinvigorate the development of waqf properties to achieve sustainable poverty alleviation in the State.

Methodology – Qualitative approach is adopted in conducting the research and the data is collected through relevant literature survey, face-to-face interview, observation and archival studies. Descriptive technique is used in analyzing the data.

Findings – It becomes certain that poverty in Sokoto State remains resistant to all successive conventional measures of its alleviation. It is discovered that the potentials of waqf are not adequately harnessed for sustainable poverty alleviation. Thus, there is a need for re-focusing the activities of waqf institution towards achieving the ultimate goal.

Consequences – Weak management of waqf properties amounts to waste of hard-earned resources. While prevalence of poverty culminates in the rising rate of ignorance, unemployment, hunger, diseases and social vices.

Suggestion- All stakeholders in the phenomenon; arms of government, the rich, scholars and the general public, should be alive to their respective responsibilities. Unlike zakah that has confinements and limitations, waqf has an open-ended pooling system that can squarely tackle the problem of poverty if professionally managed.


Keywords: micro-small-and-medium enterprises (MSMEs), Nigeria, poverty alleviation, Sokoto, waqf.

Full Text:




Abdul Karim, S. (2010). “Contemporary Shari’ah Compliance Structuring for the Development and Management of Waqf Assets in Singapore”, Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, 3(2), 143-164

Affandi, H. & Nufus, D. (2010). “Analysis of Cash Waqf Return Fund Allocation in Indonesia: A Case Study in Indonesian Waqf Deposit”. Available at

Agboola, S.A. (2012). An Agricultural Atlas of Nigeria, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Ahmed, H. (2014). Role of Zakah and Awqaf in Poverty Alleviation, an Occasional Paper, No. 8, Jeddah: IRTI/IDB.

Ali, K.M. (2014). Integrating Zakah,Awqaf and Islamic Microfinance for Poverty Alleviation: Three Models of Islamic Microfinance, IRTI working paper series (WP # 1435-19), Jeddah: Islamic Research and training Institute, IDB.

Ali, A.E.S. (2013). The Challenges of Islamic Trade Finance in Promoting SMEs in IDB Member Countries, IRTI working paper series (WP # 1435-06), Jeddah: Islamic Research and training Institute, IDB.

Azharee, S.A.A. (2014). Jawahir al-Ikleel, Vol. 2, Beirut: Dár al-Fikr

Babacan, M. (2011). “Economic of philanthropic institutions, regulation and governance in Turkey”, Journal of Economic and Social Research, 13 (2) 61-89.

Bello, D. A. (2009). "Poverty Alleviation through Zakah and Waqf Institutions: A Case

for the Muslim Ummah in Ghana." Munich Personal RePec Archive Paper. 54-71

Burchi, F., & De Muro, P. (2016). “From food availability to nutritional capabilities:

Advancing food security analysis” Food Policy, 60, 10-19.

Choudhury, M.A. (2011). Islamic Economics and Finance: An Epistemological Inquiry, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Cizakca, M. (2011). “Awqaf in History and its Implications for Modern Islamic Economies”, Islamic Economic Studies, 6 (1) 43-70.

Cizakca, M. (2011). A History of Philantropic Foundations: The Islamic World from the Seventh Century to the Present, Istambul: Bogazici University Press.

Egharevba, M. E., Iruonagbe, C. T., Azuh, D. E., Chiazor, A. I., & Suleiman, B. M. (2016).

“Poverty, Inequality and Human Development in Nigeria: Appraising the Non-

Attainment of the MDGs”, Ifepsychologia, 24(1).

Fields, G.S. (2014). “The Dynamics of Poverty, Inequality, and Economic Well-being: African Economic Growth in Comparative Perspective” Journal of African Economies, 9 (suppl. 1), 45-78.

Food and Agriculture Organization, World Food Program (2015). “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2014: Strengthening the enabling environment for food security and nutrition.” World Food Program, Rome: FAO

Holy Qur’an, English Translation of the Meaning and Commentary, Medina: King Fahad Holy Qur’an Printing Complex, K.S.A., 1427 A.H.

Iman, A.M. & Sabit, M.T. (2014). Waqf Property: Concept, Management and Financing, Universiti Technologi Malaysia.

Ismail, A. G, Zaenal, M. H. & Shafiai, M. H. (2013). Philanthropy in Islam: A Promise to Welfare Economic System, IRTI Working Paper No. WP-1435-03

Jaziri, A. (2010). Kitab al-Fiqh ala Mazahib al-Arba’i, Vols. 2 & 3, Beirut: Dar al-Kutub.

Khan, N. A. & Jareen, S. (2015). “The Waqf and Human Security in Muslim Majority

Countries: Traditions, Modern Practices, and Challenges”, Human Security and

Philanthropy, New York: Springer, 183-204

Mahamood, S.M. & Ab Rahman, A. (2016). Financing Universities through Waqf: Is it Possible? Published by Emerald Insight at:

Mahamood, S.M. (2011). “Law of Waqf in Malaysia: Recent Developments”, in , M. and Mashitoh, S. (Eds), Essential Readings In Contemporary Waqf Issues, Kuala Lumpur: CERT Publications Sdn. Bhd. 77-106.

Maidoki, M.L. & Sani, U.B. (2015). Management of Zakah and Endowment to Empower the Needy in Nigeria, a paper submitted to First International Journal of Islamic Monetary Economics and Finance, Surabaya, Indonesia, October 29-30, 2015

Muhammad, I.N. (2016). Imperatives for Waqf-Based Participatory Poverty Alleviation Initiatives in Kano, Nigeria, published by Emerald Insight at:

National Bureau of Statistics (2015). The Nigerian GDP Report, Q2 2015 (Retrieved on September 22, 2015).

National Planning Commission (2005). National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), April, p.3

Obaidullah, M. (2013). A Framework for Analysis of Islamic Endowment (Waqf) Laws. IRTI working paper series (WP # 1435-15), Jeddah: Islamic Research and training Institute, IDB.

Okpi, A. (2013). Sokoto, Katsina, Top List of Poor States in Nigeria, retrieved on Wednesday, 9th December, 2015, from: http.//www.punchng. com/news/Sokoto-katsina-top-list-of-poor-states/

Rao, V. & Sanyal, P. (2010). “Dignity through discourse: Poverty and the Culture of

Deliberation in Indian Village Democracies” The Annals of the American

Academy of Political and Social Science, 629(1), 146-172.

Rashid, S. K. (2011). Certain Legal and Administrative Measures for the Revival and Better Management of Awqaf, IRTI working paper series (WP # 1432-02), Jeddah: Islamic Research and training Institute, IDB.

Rodríguez, J. A., Giménez Thomsen, C., Arenas, D., & Pagell, M. (2016). “NGOs’ Initiatives to Enhance Social Sustainability in the Supply Chain: Poverty Alleviation through Supplier Development Programs”. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 97-123

Rosen, S., Meade, B., Fuglie, K. & Rada, N. (2014). International Food Security Assessment, 2014-24. Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Sarah, A.E. & Cavanagh, J. (2010). The Rise of Corporate Global Power, Washington: Institute For Policy Studies.

Shah, A. (2013). “Poverty: Facts and Statistics” Global Issues, January 7, p. 30.

Shirazi, N.S, Obaidullah, M. & Haneef, M.S. (2015). Integration of Waqf and Islamic Microfinance for Poverty Reduction: Case of Pakistan, IRTI working paper series (WP # 1436-05), Jeddah: Islamic Research and training Institute, IDB.

Sokoto State Government (2010). The Sokoto Diary, Sokoto: Government Printing Press

Suleiman, I. (2010). The Islamic State and the Challenge of History: ideals, Policies and Operation of the Sokoto Caliphate, London: Mansell Publishing, Ltd.

Udo, R.K. (2013). Geographical Regions of Nigeria, London: Heinemann Educational Books, Ltd.

UNDP (2013). Nigeria – The Human Development Index: Going beyond Income, Human Development Report.

UNDP (2015). Nigeria – The Human Development Index: Going beyond Income, Human Development Report.

UNDP (2013). Nigeria – The Human Development Index: Going beyond Income, Human Development Report.

UNDP (2016). Nigeria – The Human Development Index: Going beyond Income, Human Development Report.

United Nations Organization (2013). World Health Organization Report, 25th October.

United Nations Organization (2015). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Report, 25th October.

United Nations Organization (2014). Food and Agricultural Organization Report, April


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.