Content Validity, Face Validity and Reliability of the Consumers’ Motivations and Online Newspapers Consumption Measurement Scales

Muhammad Ramzan Pahore, Norsiah binti Abdul Hamid, Awan binti Ismail


Online newspapers are important source of news consumption among others media sources like, TV, Radio, traditional newspapers. Therefore, there are certain motivating factors for online newspapers consumption in Pakistan. These factors frequently have been studies with conventional media and in developed economies but less been explored in developing countries.

However, researchers are yet to consider delving on the differential functions of these consumers’ motivations factors for online newspapers consumption. This paper reports the findings of content and face validity and internal consistency of the consumers’ motivations scales for information motivation, entertainment motivation, social utility motivation, personal utility motivation, escapism motivation and online newspapers consumption. Hence, the content validity and face validity of the items and the scale which are developed from past studies are examined by calculating the Content Validity Index (CVI) of both the items-level and the scale-level CVIs from the ratings of seven experts. These experts also provide an assessment of the wordings of the scales’ items for face validity. Furthermore, to scrutinize the internal consistency of the scale, a survey was conducted among a sample of 148 respondents. The results of this study present that, the consumers’ motivations factors and online newspapers consumption scales have suitable content and face validity and standard level of internal consistencies of five consumers’ motivation factors; information motivation, entertainment motivation, social utility motivation, personal utility motivation, escapism motivation and online newspapers consumption.

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