Diabetic Foot and Peripheral Arterial Disease

Umair Hashmi, Fatima Zartaj, Qudsia Zafar, Khadija Nadeem

Abstract


OBJECTIVE:  objective of this study is to determine the frequency of arterial disease in patients having diabetic foot.

STUDY DESIGN:  prospective descriptive study.

PLACE AND DURATION: This study was conducted at SW#4 Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur from September 2016 to January 2017.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:  Patients with diabetes mellitus with non-healing foot ulcer were selected for the study using non-probability purposive sampling technique. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was also calculated; diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease made when ankle brachial index was less than 0.9. Peripheral arterial disease was further graded as mild, moderate and severe according to recommendations of American Diabetes Association. In different grades frequency with proportions were calculated.

RESULTS: A total of 70 diabetic foot patients were included, amongst which 50 (71.4%) were males and 20 (28.5%) were females. Peripheral arterial disease was found in 25 (35.7%) patients, among them 15 (60%) had mild, 10 (40%) had moderate and no patient had severe arterial disease

CONCLUSION: Ankle brachial index (ABI) is a cheap and simple technique for diagnosing peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The PAD can be prevented in diabetics by monitoring ABI in at risk patients as it is one of the major risk factors for diabetic foot.


Keywords


Ankle brachial index, peripheral arterial disease, diabetic foot.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Wild S, Sicree R, Roblic g, King H, Green A. Global prevalence of diabetes; estimates for the year 2000 and projection for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.

Faiz-ul-Rehman, Nadir S, Noor S. Diabetic Foot JPMI 2004;27:1047-53.

Brem H, Shehan P, Rosenburg HJ, Schneider JS, Boultan AJM. Evidence based protocol for diabetic foot ulcer. Plastic Reconstr Surg 2006;117:1935-2075.

Gibbon g, Eliopoulos GM. Infection of the diabetic foot. In: Kozak GP, editor. Management of diabetic foot problem. Pheladelphia: WB Saunders; 1984. P97-102.

Brand PW. The insensitive foot (including leprosy). 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders 1991: 2173-5

Pecoraro RE, Reiber GE,Burgers EM. Pathways to diabetic limb amputation, Basis of prevention. Diabetic Care 1990;13:513-21

Lavery LA, Armstrong DG,Quebedaux TL, Walker Sc. Puncture Wounds, normal laboratory values in the face of severe infection in diabetics and non diabetics. Am J Med 1996;101:521-5.

Kokobelian AR, Zigmantovich IUM. Syndrome of diabetic foot and atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries. Vestin Khir Im II Grk 2006;165 (3):74-8

O’Meara SO, Gullum N, Majid M, Sheldon T. Systemic review of wound care management: diabetic foot ulceration. Health Technol Assess 2000;4(21):1-237

Wagner F. the dysvascular foot. A system for diagnosis and treatment. Foot Ankle 1981;2:64-122

Faglia E, Caravaggi C, Marchetti R, Mingardi R, Morabito A, Piagessi A, et al. screening for peripheral arterial disease by means of the ankle brachial index in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Diab Med 2005;22:1310-14

Ince P, Kendrick D, Game F, Jeffcoate W. The association between baseline characteristics and outcomes of foot lesions in a UK population with diabetes. Diabet Med 2007;24(9):977-81.

Khammash MR, Obeidat KA. Prevalence of ischemia in diabetic foot infection. World J Surg 2003;27(7):797-9

Ali SM, Bait A, Sheikh T, Mumtaz S. Diabetic foot ulcer: perspective study. J Pak Med Assoc 2001;51(2):78-81

Wylie Rosset J, Walker EA, Shamoon H, Engel S. Basch C Zybet P. Assessment of of documental foot examination for patients with diabetes in inner city primary care clinics. Arch Fam Med 1995;4:46-50.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.