Differentials between SC/ST/NT, OBC and General Men about Awareness of STIs and Cervical Cancer in Urban Slums of Mumbai

Prashant Tapase, D. D. Naik, Balaiah Donta

Abstract


Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in developing countries. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimated around 1,34,400 new cases and 72,825 deaths due to cervical cancer in India. If men are brought into a wide range of awareness about STIs and cervical cancer, better outcomes are expected in prevention of STIs and cervical cancer. The objective of the study is to investigate differentials among men belong to Scheduled Caste (SC) / Scheduled Tribe (ST) /Nomadic Tribe (NT), OBC and General category about awareness of STIs and Cervical Cancer.

 

Baseline data of men was drawn from an intervention study entitled “Enhancing knowledge and promoting health seeking behaviour of couples on sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer in urban slums of Mumbai”. The study was conducted in collaboration with Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). The data was collected from 1958 men through a semi-structured interview schedule from two urban slums of Mumbai randomly. Information was collected on socio-economic and demographic characters, awareness and symptoms of STIs and cervical cancer, and health seeking behaviour. The category-wise distribution of sample was 364 were belong to SC/ST/NT, 328 were from OBC and 1266 were from General category.   

 

Results indicate that over all 8.5 percent of men were aware of cervical cancer whereas only 0.3 percent were aware of pap smear test. Significant difference was observed between SC/ST/NT, OBC and General category with respect to education, income, occupation, awareness of symptoms like pain during intercourse and itching/redness in/around genital area, wife’s experiencing abnormal discharge and/ or abnormal vaginal bleeding, whereas no significant difference was observed in awareness about cancer, cervical cancer and Pap smear test.

 Study concludes that there is a need to increase awareness regarding STI symptoms, cervical cancer and Pap smear test for early detection of cervical cancer as well as promoting better health seeking behaviour with respect to cervical cancer and STIs. Programmes need to focus on general population rather than specific categories in a metropolitan city like Mumbai as population in urban slums of Mumbai is ethnically mixed in nature.

 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Amooti-Kaguna B, Nuwaha F. Factors influencing choice of delivery sites in Rakai district of Uganda. Soc Sci Med 2000; 50(2):203–13.

Arbyn M, Castellsagué X, de Sanjosé S, Bruni L, Saraiya M, et al. (2011) Worldwide burden of cervical cancer in 2008. Ann Oncol 22: 2675-2686.

Basu P, Chowdhury D (2009) Cervical cancer screening & HPV vaccination: a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer control. Indian J Med Res 130:241-246.

Bingham A, Bishop A, Coffey P, et al (2003). Factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer prevention services. Salud Publica Mex, 2003, 45, 408-16.

Blanc AK: The effect of power in sexual relationships on sexual and reproductive health: an examination of the evidence. Studies in Family Planning. 2001; 32(3): 189–213.

Brown DR, Shew ML, Qadadri B, Neptune N, Vargas M, et al. (2005) A longitudinal study of genital human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of closely followed adolescent women. J Infect Dis 191: 182-192.

Castellsague X, Mun˜oz N (2003) Cofactors in human papillomavirus carcinogenesis-role of parity, oral contraceptives, and tobacco smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 31: 20-28.

Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA et al. Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Journal of Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2004; 37(5): 1620–6.

GLOBOCAN 2008: Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide. IARC, Lyon, France.

Interis EC, Anakwenze CP, Aung M, Jolly PE. (2016) Increasing Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Jamaica: Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Educational Intervention. Int J Environ Res Public Health; 13:53.

International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. National Family Health Survey (NFHS- 3), 2005–06: India: Volume I. Mumbai: IIPS.2007.

Jacobs MV, Walboomers JM, Snijders PJ, Voorhorst FJ, Verheijen RH, et al. (2000) Distribution of 37 mucosotropic HPV types in women with cytologically normal cervical smears: the age-related patterns for high-risk and low-risk types. Int J Cancer 87: 221-227.

Juneja A, Sehgal A, Sharma S, Pandey A (2007) Cervical cancer screening in India: strategies revisited. Indian J Med Sci 61: 34-47.

McPartland TS, Weaver BA, Lee SK, Koutsky LA. Men’s perceptions and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer. J Am Coll Health. 2005; 53(5): 225–230.

Naik DD , Balaiah Donta , Saritha Nair and BN Mali, (2016) Enhancing awareness of STIs and Cervical Cancer among women in an urban slum of Mumbai: A comparative study focusing on General, OBC and SC/ST population, Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 4(10) 29-35

Oon SW, Shuib R, Ali SH, Hazlina NH, Shaaban J, et al. (2011) Factors Affecting Health Seeking Behaviour Among Kelantanese Women on Pap Smear Proceeding of International Conference on Humanities, Society and Culture. IPEDR, IACSIT Press, Singapore.

Shaila Bhardwaj and Mary Grace Tungdim, (2010) Reproductive Health Profile of the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe women of Rajasthan, India, The Open Anthropology Journal, Vol. 3 pg. 181-187.

Singh MI, Ranjan R, Das B, Gupta K. (2014) Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening in women visiting a tertiary care hospital of Delhi. Indian J Cancer; 51(3):319-23.

Tapase P, Naik DD, Iddya U, Donta B, (2016). Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices of Reproductive Health Issues among SC/ST/Minorities and Hindus in Slum Community of Mumbai, Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, ISSN: 2321-8819 (Online), 2348-7186 (Print). 4(13): 85-92.

Trevino M, Jandorf L, Bursac Z, Erwin DO. Cancer screening behaviors among Latina women: the role of the Latino male. J Community Health. 2012; 37(3): 694–700.

Ushadevi G, Rose AA, Kumar AT (2012) Knowledge about Cervical Cancer Risk Factors among the Rural Women of Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. Nat J Res Com Med 1: 125-128.

World Vision. An exploratory study of sexual networking patterns of tribals, Navapur, Maharashtra 1997; 13.

Wright TC, Jr., Blumenthal P, Bradley J et al. Cervical cancer prevention for all the world's women: new approaches offer opportunities and promise. Diagnostic Cytopathology. 2007; 35(12): 845-8.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.