The Development of Alzheimer’s Disease : An Empirically Approach
Little research has been done on the most appropriate living and care environment for those living with Alzheimer’s disease. With current predictions showing that over 16 million people will be living with Alzheimer’s disease by the year 2050, it is important that practitioners become aware of how living environments may help or hinder the treatment of the disease. This study is an exploratory longitudinal study aimed at understanding how the disease progresses among different living environments. The study examines the difference in the mean stage of the disease over a 6 year period in 3 living environments, including individuals living at home independently, those living at home or with relatives but with assistance, and those living in an assisted living facility. 374 participants were asked to participate in the study by responding to a 122-question online survey. The study showed that the mean difference in the stage of the disease in early years shows to be lower in those who live at home independently, however, in later years the mean difference is lowest in those living in an assisted living facility. This could suggest that the progression of the disease is slower in familiar environments that involve routine tasks when cognition is mildly impaired. This could also suggest that the development of Alzheimer’s disease is slower in an assisted living facility when cognition is more significantly impaired.
Azcurra, DJLS (2012). A reminiscence program intervention to improve the quality of life of long-term care residents with Alzheimer’s disease. A randomized controlled trial. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 34, 422-433.
Altman, L., Kempler, D., & Andersen, E. (2001). Speech errors in Alzheimer's Disease: Reevaluating Morphosyntactic Preservation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44(5), 1069-1082.
Azcurra, D. J. L. S. (2012). A reminiscence program intervention to improve the quality of life of long-term care residents with Alzheimer's disease. a randomized controlled trial. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 34(4), 422-433.
Barca, M., Engedal, K., Laks, J., & Selbaek, G. (2011). Quality of life among elderly patients with dementia in institutions. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31, 435-442.
Bechtel, C., Remington, R., Barton, B., Barasauskas, C., & Shea, T. (2015). Cognitive testing for dementia is adversely affected by administration in a foreign location. BMC Research Notes
Becker, J. (2004). Cognitive neuropsychology of Alzheimer’s disease. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
Bellville, S., Gauthier, S., Lepage, E., Kergoat, M., & Gilbert, B. Predicting decline in mild cognitive impairment: A prospective cognitive study. Neuropsychology, 28, 643-652.
Blieszner, R. (2006). A lifetime of caring: Dimensions and dynamics in late-life close relationships. Personal Relationships, 13, 1-18.
Boyle, P., Wilson, R., Schneider, J., Bienias, J., & Bennett, D. (2008). Processing resources reduce the effect of Alzheimer pathology on other cognitive systems. Neurology, 70(17), 1534-1542.
Callahan, C.M., Arling, G., Tu, W., Rosenman, M.B., Counsell, S.R., Stump, & T.E., Hendrie. (2012). Transitions in care for older adults with and without dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Sociaety, 60(5), 813-820.
Cherrier, M., Matsumoto, A., Amory, J., Asthana, S., Bremner, W., Peskind, E., ... Craft, S. (2005). Testosterone improves spatial memory in men with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Neurology, 64(12), 2063-2068.
Edahiro, A., Hirano, H., Yamada, R., Chiba, Y., Watanabe, Y., Tonogi, M., & Yamane, G.Y. (2010). Factors affecting independence in eating among elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 12, 481-490
Francis, P., & Minger, S. (2000). Alzheimer's Disease. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, Oxford Journals, 123, 1752-1753.
Gillick, M. R. (2012). Doing the right thing: A geriatrician's perspective on medical care for the person with advanced dementia. Journal of Law, Medicine, & Ethics, 40(1), 51-56.
Guan, X., Zhan, H. J., & Lui, G. (2007). Institutional and individual autonomy investigating predictors of attitudes toward institutional care in china. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 64(1), 83-107.
Joachim, C., Morris, J., DPhil, B. B., & Selkoe, J. (2004). Clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's Disease: Autopsy Results In 150 Cases. Annals of Neurology, 24, 50-56.
Jost, B. C., MS, & Grossberg, G. T., MD. (1995). The natural history of Alzheimer's Disease: A brain bank study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43(11), 1248-1255.
Jucker, M., & Walker, L. C. (2013). Self-propagation of pathogenic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature, 501, 45-51
Kelsey, S.G., Laditka, S.B., & Laditka, J.N. (2009). Dementia and transitioning from assisted living to memory care units: Perspectives of administrators in three facility types. The Gerentologist, 50(2), 192-203
Lee, J. A., Walker, M., & Shoup, R. (2001). Balancing elder care responsibilities and work: The impact on emotional health. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(2).
Lundin, A., Berg, L. E., & Muhli, U. H. (2013). Feeling existentially touched - a phenomenological notion of well-being of elderly living in special housing accommodation from the perspective of care professionals. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health & Well-being, 8.
Macduffie, K., Atkins, A., Flegal, K., Clark, C., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2012). Memory distortion in Alzheimer's disease: Deficient monitoring of short- and long-term memory.
Neuropsychology, 26(4), 509-516.
Magsi, H., & Malloy, T. (2005). Underrecognition of cognitive impairment in assisted living facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 295-298.
Marshall, R., Mcgurk, S., Karow, C., & Kairy, T. (2007). Problem-solving abilities of participants with and without diffuse neurologic involvement. Aphasiology, 21(6), 750- 762.
Peterson, R., Caracciolo, B., Brayne, C., Gauthier, S., Jelic, V., & Fratiglioni, L. (2014). Mild cognitive impairment: A concept in evolution. Journal of Internal Medicine, 275, 214- 228.
Prince, M., Albanese, E., Guerchet, M., & Prina, M. (2014). World Alzheimer report 2014: Dementia and risk reduction an analysis of protective and modifiable factors. Alzheimer’s Disease International.
Rockwood, K., Strang, D., MacKnight, C., Downer, R, Morris, J.C. (2000). Interrater reliability of the clinical dementia rating in a multicenter trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(5), 558-559.
Rogers, S., Farlow, M., Doody, R., Mohs, R., & Friedhoff, L. (1998). A 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Rolland, Y., Pillard, F., Klapouszczak, A., Peynish, E., Thomas, D., Andrieu, S., … Vellas, B. (2007). Exercize program for nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease: A 1-year randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 3455(2), 158- 165.
Smith, D.A. (2009). Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in the long-term-care setting. American Journal of Health System Pharmcists, 66(5), 899-907.
Storandt, M. (2008). Cognitive deficits in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(3), 198-202.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2016). Alzheimer's Disease fact sheet.National Institute on Aging. Retrieved from http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-fact-sheet
Uc, E., Rizzo, M., Anderson, S., Shi, Q., & Dawson, J. (2004). Driver landmark and traffic sign identification in early Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neurosurgery PSychiatry, 76(1).
Webber, P. A., Fox, P., & Burnette, D. (1994). Living alone with Alzheimer's disease: Effects on health and social service utilization patterns1. Gerontologist, 34(1), 8-15.
Zhan, H. J., Feng, Z., Chen, Z., & Feng, X. (2011). The role of the family in institutional long- term care: Cultural management of filial piety in china. International Journal of Social Welfare, 20, 121-134.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.