Mongolian students’ learning strategies in mastering English receptive skills

Ragchaa Jargaltuya


A number of studies have investigated English language vocabulary learning strategies; however, fewer ones focus on receptive skills. Since the goal of language learning is communication, students need to comprehend spoken and written language first and then respond based on their comprehension. English is a second language in Mongolia and language learning strategies (LLS) have not been assessed yet. This paper explores which strategies are used by 6th and 8th grade students in mastering English language receptive skills. Such LLSs help students to gain more responsibility for their own learning. Data were collected with an online questionnaire among those graders. The results showed the 6th graders prefer to ask questions to clarify meaning, to use key words, to do mind mapping, and to use “speaker’s voice” to understand the content for listening strategies. For reading, students indicated that they would rather guess the words from the context, participate more in reading activities, divide the story if it is long, and predict the main idea from its title. Moderate correlation was found between the children’s attitude towards listening and reading and their LLSs. Age and mother’s education negatively affected their LLSs while students’ listening and reading attitudes affected their learning strategies.



Language learning strategy, attitude, receptive skills, influence factors

Full Text:



Bandpay, B. A. (2016). Adult’s learning strategies for receptive skills self-managing or teacher-

managing. International Journal of Research in English Education, Vol.1. pp. 16-21.

Butler, Y, Someya, Y., & Fukuhara, E. (2014). Online games for YLs’ foreign language

learning. English Language Teaching Journal, 68(3), 265-275.doi: 10.1093/elt/ccu008.

Common European Framework of Reference for languages: learning, teaching, assessment.

(2001). Council of Europe: Cambridge University Press.

Doró, K., & Habók, A. (2013). Language learning strategies in elementary school: The effect of

age and gender in an EFL context. Journal of Linguistics and Language Teaching, 4(2),


eDia. (2009). Developing Diagnostic Assessments: the Center for Research on Learning and Instruction, University of Szeged, Hungary

Field, J. (2008). Listening in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.

Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2011). Teaching and researching reading (2nded.).New York:

Routledge Press.

Griffiths, C., & Cansiz, G. (2015). Language Learning Strategies: A holistic view, SSLLT, 5(3),


Huseynova, F.(2007). Assessing students' listening and reading skills questionnaires on listening

and reading skills. Lincoln University, Nebraska.

Jeon, E. H., & Yamashita, J. (2014). L2 reading comprehension and its correlates: A meta-

Analysis. A Journal of research in language studies, 160–168.

Khalil, A. (2005). Assessment of language learning strategies used by Palestinian EFL learners,

Foreign Language Annals, 38(1), 108-119.

Khamkhien, A. (2010). Factors affecting language learning strategy reported usage by Thai and

Vietnamese EFL learners, Foreign language teaching, 7(1), 66-85.

Koch, Sh. (2016). Focus on the 4 basic language skills: Receptive. TESOL English language

bulletin, Retrieved from


Leppänen, S. (2007). Study on English, University of Jyväskylä Department of Languages/

Centre of Excellence for the Study of Variation, Contacts and Change in English, Finland.

Retrieved [08.10.2017] from:

Melby-Lerv˚ag, M., &Lerv˚ag, A. (2011). Cross-linguistic transfer of oral language, decoding,

phonological awareness and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis of the correlational

evidence. Journal of Research in Reading, 34, 114–135.

Melby-Lerv˚ag, M., Lyster, S. H., &Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in

learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 322–352.

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (MECS). (2015). Суурь боловсролын цөм

хөтөлбөр[National core curriculum for basic education]. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Nandi, A. (2011). Carol Griffiths, ed. 2008: Lessons from good language learners: Paperback,

ATLANTIS journal of the Spanish association of Angola-American studies, 33(1), 173-178.

Nation, I. S. P. (2008). Teaching ESL/EFL reading and writing. New York: Routledge.

Nation, I. S. P., & Newton, J. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL listening and speaking. New York:


Nation, I.S.P. (2013). Learning vocabulary strategies in another language.(Second edition).

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know, NewYork:

Newbury House Press.

Oxford, R.L. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: An overview. Proceedings of

GALA (Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition) conference, 1-25.Retrieved from

Oxford, R. L. (2011). Teaching and researching: Language learning strategies (applied

linguistics in action). Pearson ESL, England.

Pavičič, T.V. (2008).Vocabulary learning strategies and foreign language acquisition.

Clevedon: Maltilinqual Matters.

PISA. (2015). Draft Questionnaire Framework. Retrieved [20.10.2017] from:

Thѐkes, I. (2016). Assessing young Hungarian EFL learners’ vocabulary and learning

strategies. Ph.D dissertation. Szeged: University of Szeged.

Sӓӓlik, Ȕ. (2015). Learning strategies explaining boys’ and girls’ reading performance in schools

with different language, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 180, 1649-1655.

Sayer, P., & Ban, R. (2014). Young EFL students’ engagements with English outside the

classroom. ELT Journal, 68(3), 321-329. doi: 10.1093/elt/ccu013.

Scarcella, R. C., & Oxford, R. L. (1992). The tapestry of language learning: The individual in

the communicative classroom (p. 63). Boston, MA: Heinle&Heinle.

Schmidt, R., & Watanabe, Y. (2001). Motivation, strategy use, and pedagogical preferences in

foreign language learning. In Z. Dörnyei& R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second

language acquisition (Technical Report #23, pp. 313–359). Honolulu: University of

Hawai‘i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Vandergrift, L., & Goh, C. M. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening. New

York: Routledge.

Weng, P. L. P., Yunus, M. Md., & Embi, M. A. B. (2016). Successful language learning

strategies used by successful year 5 English as a second language (ESL) learners,

Proceeding of ICECRS, 1, 1-11.

Zare, P. (2012). Language learning strategies among EFL/ESL learners: Areview of literature.

International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2. pp. 162-169.

Zare, P., & Nooreen, N.(2011).The Relationship between language learning strategy use

andreading comprehension achievement among Iranian undergraduate EFL learners.

World Applied Sciences Journal, 13(8): 1870-1877.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.