Corruption: the intertwined problem of cause and consequence

Ebrahim Ahmed Assakaf, Rose Shamsiah Samsudin, Zaleha Othman


Corruption is not a new phenomenon. Scholars associate corruption with the existence of government. As old as it may be, over a period of time, corruption has become more complex, and many academic studies have investigated its complexity. However, most focus on the correlation between corruption and economic growth, including the fundamental cause of corruption. This paper aims to understand the causes and consequences of corruption. It conceptualizes suggestions for the causes and provide a rationale for the consequences, which appear to be intertwined. In addition to generating a deeper understanding of the phenomenon, this paper provides a path for future researchers to identify patterns of causes and consequences among countries at different stages of development.


Corruption, Causes, Consequences

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