Carcinoma Breast, Causes and Risk Factors
OBJECTIVE: This study was done to determine causes and risk factors of carcinoma breast and prevalence of carcinoma breast in different age groups of females.
STUDY DESIGN: It is a descriptive prospective type of study.
DURATION AND PLACE: This study was done on patients admitted in oncology ward of bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur from January 2017 to December 2017.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on total 66 patients admitted in oncology ward of the hospital. They were admitted via OPD bases. They were in different stages of disease for relevant treatment either neo adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, surgery or palliative chemotherapy in advance stages of carcinoma in which distal metastasis has occurred in lungs or bones. These all patients were underwent necessary investigations including mammography, ultrasound breast, tumor markers, metastatic workup via CT abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen. Detailed history of these patients was taken for any family factors or history of carcinoma in relatives. Thorough examination of such patients done for any palpable lymph nodes, size and site of tumor, involvement of skin or underlying muscles, puckering of skin etc. A proforma was designed mentioning all necessary questions regarding age of patients, age at menarche or menopause, risk factors and family history etc. data of each patient was documented with her consent and privacy was assured. A proper consent was taken from medical superintendant of the hospital to carry out study.
RESULTS: Total 66 patients were studied with carcinoma breast out of which 27(%) were above 50 years of age and 39 were below 50 years. There were 3() in 20-30 years age, 11(16.67%) in 31-40 years, 25 (37.87%) lying in age group of 41-50 years, 22(33.3%) in 51-60 years and 5() above 60 years of age. Out of 66 cases, 36(54.5%) had age of menopause between 40-45 years, 20(30.3%) in 46-50 years and 10(15.2%) had menopause in age more than 50 years. In most of these patients age of menarche was 13-15 years. There were 6(9%) nulliparous, 25(37.8%) had 1-2 children, 31(46.9%) had 3-4 children and 4(6%) had more than 4 children. It was seen that mostly patients were above 40 years of age with late menopause and early menarche. All data was composed on Microsoft office version 2007 and it was expressed via graphs, tables and charts.
CONCLUSION: From this study it was concluded that risk factors of carcinoma breast include positive family history of malignancy, old age of patient, early menarche, menopause in late age and nulliparous. In our society all these factors contribute to breast cancer.
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