Etiology of pancytopenia in patients presenting at tertiary care hospital in Islamabad

Amna Bakhtiar, Zainab Batool, Sundas Seher

Abstract


Objective: To find the common etiological factors causing pancytopenia in patients presenting to tertiary care hospital in Islamabad

Study Design: Cross sectional observational study

Place and duration of study: The study was conducted within the department of Hematology (Pathology), Pakistan institute of medical sciences (PIMS) Islamabad from January 2018 to June 2018

Patients and Methods: 50 patients with the diagnosis of pancytopenia were listed in the study.  Documentation of patients’ history and physical examination was done. Complete blood counts were done using automated blood analyzer. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were done following standard protocols and evaluated microscopically. Data of each patient was documented properly. Consent was taken from all patients and also from the in charge of pathology department for conducting study. Data was analyzed using Microsoft office and SPSS version 2012. Data was expressed in the form of tables.

Result: 260 patients from different units were received for bone marrow biopsy during 6 months duration. 50 patients out of 260(19%) were having pancytopenia. The most common cause of pancytopenia was found to be megaloblastic anemia (18%), followed by hypersplenism (16%) and infection related changes (16%). Megaloblastic anemia was most commonly found in the middle aged population (>40-60 years)

Conclusion: The study showed that single most common cause of pancytopenia in adult population is megaloblastic anemia, followed by hypersplenism and overwhelming infection. Bone marrow examination is most useful investigation in understanding the etiology of pancytopenia.


Keywords


Pancytopenia, Megaloblastic anemia, bone marrow aspirate

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