Conceptual issues on environmental responsibility in transnational hotels: An example from Lagos, Nigeria.

Idoko Ojochenemi, Azilah Kasim.


The rapid growth in the tourism and hospitality industry in Nigeria, especially in the hotel sector have also attracted the corresponding rise in pressure on the hotel businesses to incorporate environmental responsibilities so that their activities will not affect the environment negatively. Consequently, hoteliers in the developed countries have consistently embraced Business Environmental Responsibility (BER) practices like Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), green practices and environmental-friendly initiatives. However, the experience is not the same in Nigeria; thus, raising serious concerns from stakeholders like environmental regulators, community, media, and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs) for the reduction of carbon footprint and enhance environmental preservation. Since transnational hotel possesses huge wealth and popularity expected to provide leadership in the industry. The study seeks to explore, to what extent are the hotels in Nigeria pressured to address their BER. A qualitative approach will be used to investigate how transnational hotels in Nigeria engage in environmentally responsible practices. It also seeks to understand the extent of ‘Regulatory’ and ‘Non-regulatory’ pressures that have an influence on Nigerian transnational hotels to be environmentally responsible.  Views of stakeholders in Nigerian hotel sector will be sought to have a balanced knowledge on the issues.


Business environmental responsibility, regulatory pressure, Nigerian hotel, environmental management.

Full Text:



Abila, N. (2010). Corporate social responsibility in Nigeria: a review of multinationals activities. Finland: Industrial Management Unit, University of 1 Vaasa, Finland. Retrieved from

Adeola Ogechi and Kennedy Ozenwafor. (2016). “The hospitality business in Nigeria: issues, challenges, and opportunities”. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 8(2), 182–194.

Adepoju, D. (2014). “Need for more regulation, standardization, and classification in the Lagos hospitality industry.” Financial Nigeria, 28–29.

Aderogba, K. A. &, & Afelumo, B. A. (2012). Waste Dumps and their Management in Lagos Metropolis. International Journal of Learning and Development, 2(1), 1–16.

Adesina, K. I., & Ngozi, E. (2013). Hospitality Business Vs Environmental Sustainability : A Study of Soarak Hotel and Casino Lagos, 2(9), 288–293.

Adeyanju, O. (2012). An assessment of the impact of corporate social responsibility on Nigerian society: The examples of banking and communication industries. Universal Journal of Marketing and Business Research, 1(1), 17–43. Retrieved from

Adhikari, K. (2008). Assessment of Environmental Problems and Methods of Waste Management in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. African Research Review, 4(3), 1–6.

Amaeshi, K. M., Adi, B. C., Ogbechie, C., & Amao, O. O. (2006). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Nigeria: western mimicry or indigenous practices? Journal of Corporate Citizenship, (39), 1–44.

Amankwaa, G. (2012). An Implementation of Environmental Management System according to ISO 14001 Standard in the Hospitality Industry a Case Study - Golden Tulip Kumasi City Hotel. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. Retrieved from Amankwaa.pdf

Awujo, A.C, and Ukabuilu, E. N. (2005). Factors Affecting Life and Death of Hotels in Nigeria: A study of some selected hotels in the Eastern States of Nigeria. Journal of Africa in New World Order, 182–189.

Bankole, A. and Odularu, G. (2006). “Achieving the millennium development goals: issues and options for Nigeria’s tourism industry”. Pasos, 4(3), 429–436. Retrieved from

Bansal, P., and Roth, K. (2000). Why companies go green: a model of ecological responsiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 717–736.

Bohdanowicz-Godfrey, P. and Zientara, P. (2014). Environmental Performance Assessment Systems in the hotel Industry. International Business and Global Economy. The Institute of International Business. 10.4467/23539496IB.13.055.2440

Bohdanowicz, P. (2005). European hoteliers’ environmental attitudes: Greening the business. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(188).

Butler, J. (2008). The compelling “hard case” for “green” hotel development. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 49(3), 234–244.

CBN. (2006). Annual Report and Accounts for the Year Ended 31st December 2006, CBN, Abuja.

Chung, L.H., and Parker, L. D. (2010). Managing social and environmental action and accountability in the hospitality industry: a Singapore perspective. Accounting Forum, 34(1), 46–53.

CITES. (2001). Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, (4), 1–34. Retrieved from papers://a25d78e7-d6e0-4b2b-9b83-8d9ae6ec0592/Paper/p107

Coles, T., Fenclova, E., & Dinan, C. (2013). Tourism and corporate social responsibility: A critical review and research agenda. Tourism Management Perspectives, 6, 122–141.

Coopers and Lybrand. (1993). Business and the Environment: An Executive Guide. Sydney, Australia: Coopers & Lybrand Inc.

de Burgos-Jiménez, J., Cano-Guillén, C. J., & Céspedes-Lorente, J. J. (2002). Planning and control of environmental performance in hotels. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10(3), 207–221.

Deegan, C., and Rankin, M. (1996). Do Australian companies report environmental news objectively? an analysis of environmental disclosures by firms prosecuted successfully by the environmental protection authority. Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, 9(2), 50–67.

Deegan, C., Rankin, M., & Tobin, J. (2002). An examination of the corporate social and environmental disclosures of BHP from 1983-1997: A test of legitimacy theory. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal.

Delmas, M.A., and Toffel, M. W. (2003). Institutional pressure and environmental management practices, In a paper presented at the 11th International Conference of the Greening of Industry Network, San Francisco, CA, 12-15 October. San Francisco, CA, 11th International Conference of the Greening of Industry Network,

Delmas, M. A. (2002). “The Diffusion of Environmental Management Standards in Europe and in the United States: An Institutional Perspective.” Policy Sciences., 35, 91–119.

Dodds, S. and Graci, R. (2008). Why Go Green? The Business Case for Environmental Commitment in the Canadian Hotel Industry. An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(2), 251–270.

Doherty, L. (2013). Environmental Sustainability Practices in the Hospitality Industry of Orange County, California.

Dowling, J., & Pfeffer, J. (1975). Organizational legitimacy societal values and organizational behaviour. Pacific Sociological Review, 18(1), 122–136.

Ebner, D., & Baumgartner, R. J. (2006). The relationship between Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility. Corporate Responsibility Research Conference 2006, (September), 17. Retrieved from

Efiong, E. J., Usang, O., Inyang, I. O., & Effiong, C. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: An Example from the Hotel Industry. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(14), 119–126.

Eruotor, V. (2014). The Economic Importance of Tourism in Developing Countries. Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria. Central University of Applied Sciences.

Eseyin-Johnson, F. A. (2011). The Necessity for Effective Waste Management in the Hospitality Industry. The Nigerian Academic Forum, 20(1). Retrieved from Nigerian academic forum/THE NECESSITY FOR EFFECTIVE.pdf

Font, X., Walmsley, A., Cogotti, S., McCombes, L., & Häusler, N. (2012). social responsibility: The disclosure–performance gap. Corporate Tourism Management, 33(6), 1544– 1553.

Forsyth, T. (1997). Environmental responsibility and business regulation: the case of sustainable tourism. The Geographical Journal, 163(3), 270–280.

Goodland, R. (2008). The Concept of Environmental Sustainability. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26(1995), 1–24.

Goodland, R. (1995). (1995). The Concept of Environmental Sustainability: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic. Annual Reviews Stable, 26, 1–24. Retrieved from URL: Accessed: 27/01/2017

Gugler, Gugler, P. & Shi, J. Y. J. J. B. E. (2009). Corporate Social Responsibility for Developing Country Multinational Corporations: Lost War in Pertaining to Global Competitiveness? Journal of Bussiness Ethics., 87(Suppl 1(3), 3–24. & Shi, J.Y.J. J Bus Ethics

Halbe, A. (2013). Green energy initiatives in the hotel industry: factors influencing adoption decisions.

Helg, A. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility from a Nigerian perspective, 1–101.

Henderson, J. C. (2007). Corporate social responsibility and tourism: Hotel companies in Phuket, Thailand, after the Indian Ocean tsunami. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 26(1), 228–239. Retrieved from

Henriques, I., & Sadorsky, P. (1999). “The Relationship Between Environmental Commitment and Managerial Perceptions of Stakeholder Importance.” Academy of Management Journal, 42(1), 87–99.

Holden, E., Linnerud, K., & Banister, D. (2014). Sustainable development: Our Common Future revisited. Global Environmental Change, 26(1), 130–139.

Hua-Hung, W., Ja-Shen, C., and Pei-Ching, C. (2015). Effects of Green Innovation on Environmental and Corporate Performance: A Stakeholder Perspective. Sustainability, 7. Retrieved from

Idoko, O. and Ocholi, I. U. (2007). A Review of the Impacts of Human Activities on Biodiversity Degradation in Nigeria. Confluence Journal of Environmental Studies, 2(1), 63–70.

Ijaiya, H. (2014). Challenges of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Of, Journal Development, Sustainable, 60–71.

Ikebude, C. F. (2017). Feasibility Study on Solid Waste Management in Port Harcourt Metropolis: Causes, Effect, and Possible Solutions, 36(1), 276–281.

Jane, M. (2010). what’s in a name? Transnational Corporations as Bystanders under International law. Retrieved from http// or

Karnani, A. (2011). “Doing Well by Doing Good”: The Grand Illusion. California Management Review, 53(2 (reprint series)). Retrieved from

Kasim, A. (2006). Application of Qualitative Research Design in Tourism. (H. Kasim, A. & Dzakiria, Ed.), Book of reading; Applying Qualitative Design in Research: Learning by Doing. Sintok: Universiti Utara Malaysia Press.

Kasim, A. (2006). The need for business environmental and social responsibility in the tourism industry. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 7(1), 1–22.

Kasim, A. (2007). Towards a Wider Adoption of Environmental Responsibility in the Hotel Sector. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 8(2.), 25–49.

Kasim, A. (2009). Managerial attitudes towards environmental management among small and medium hotels in Kuala Lumpur. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(6), 709–725.

Kasim, A., Ismail, A. & Issa, A. J. (2011). Regulatory pressures affecting the restaurant business ’ s responsible behaviors in Penang, Malaysia, Anatolia. An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 22(3l), 390–400.

Kirk, D. (1996). Environmental Management for Hotels. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.

Knox, S., and Maklan, S. (2004). Corporate Social Responsibility: moving beyond investment towards measuring outcomes. European Management Journal, 22(5), 508–516.

Lopez‐Gamero, M., Molina‐Azorin, J., & C. (2010). The Relationship between Managers’ Environmental Perceptions, Environmental Management and Firm Performance in Spanish Hotels: a Whole Framework. International Jornal of Tourism Research, 141‐163.

Marriot International hotels. (2016). Sustainability Highlights. Retrieved from sustainable highlights

Mattera, M., & Melgarejo, A. M. (2012). Strategic Implications of Corporate Social Responsibility in Hotel Industry: a Comparative Research between NH Hotels and Melia Hotels International. Higher Learning Research Communications, 2(4), 37–53.

Mbanefo, S. (2014, December 2). Tourism accounts for 30% of Nigeria income. Vanguard, p. 12. Retrieved from

Mensah, I. (2014). Stakeholder pressure and hotel environmental performance in Accra, Ghana. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 25(2), 227–243.

Monou, M, Ioannou, S, Vatyliotou, M, Glekas, D, Glekas, I, Kassinos, D. (2016). Analysis of the environmental impacts caused by the tourist accommodation sector. Case study: Jordan. Jordan. Retrieved from

Mordi, C., Opeyemi, I. S., Tonbara, M., & Ojo, S. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility and the Legal Regulation in Nigeria. Economic Insights, LXIV(1), 1–8.

Moshood, Y. (2010, March 3). Nigeria: Mtn Example of Corporate Social Responsibility - a Personal Experience. Daily Independence Newspaper.

Muazu, L., Rashid, B., & Zainol, N. A. (2017). Predictors of Likelihood of Adoption of Green Practices in Hotels: The Case of Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 6(1), 72.

Nwosu, B. (2016). "A review of the hotel industry in Nigeria: size, structure, and issues ". Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 8(2), 117–133. Retrieved from

Nyamadi, V. M., & Opoku-Ware, J. (2015). A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Approach: The hope for lost livelihood in the mining community of Obuasi municipality in Ghana. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences., 13(2), 161–184.

Obinna, C. & Olowoopejo, M. (2017, July 29). Diarrhea Outbreak in Lagos, 2 Dead, 25 Quarantined. Vanguard News. Retrieved from

Ocholi, I.U., Idoko, O. and Ogidiolu, O. (2017). Human Induced Change Characteristics of Selected Vegetation Variables in Parts of Kogi East, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Research, 6(9), 1895–1902.

Ocholi I.U., Idoko, O. and O.. (2010). Nigerian Environment Induced Noise Pollution: A Bio-Geographical Analysis. In A. 7Th to 11Th 51St Annual Conference of the Association of Nigerian Geographers (ANG) Department of Geography and Planning, Kogi State University & 2010 March (Eds.), Contemporary Issues in Infrastructural Development and Management in Nigeria (pp. 1–178). Anyigba: The Department of Geography and Planning, Kogi State University, Anyigba. Retrieved from

Olalenwaju A. D. (2012). An assessment of the impact of corporate social responsibility on Nigerian society: The examples of banking and communication industries. Universal Journal of Marketing and Business Research, 1(1), 017–043, Retrieved from Copyright © 2012 Transnational Research Journals

Olowokudejo, F., Aduloju, S. A., & Oke, S. A. (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Effectiveness of Insurance Companies in Nigeria. Journal of Risk Finance, 12(3.), 156–167.

Olugbenga, A. E. (2013). Waste Management Problems in Metro Lagos, Nigeria: An Invitation to Environmental Disaster. Lagos, Nigeria: Sunrise Publishers.

Oluseyi, P.O, and Babatunde, O. (2016). Assessment of energy consumption and carbon footprint from the hotel sector within Lagos, Nigeria. Energy and Buildings, 118, 106–113.

Onoja, A. O., Idoko, O. & Adah, C. O. (2008). Policy implications of the effects of deforestation on the Nigerian economy. Production Agriculture and Technology Journal, 4(2), 114–120. Retrieved from

Onoja, A. O. (2012). Econometric Analysis of Factors Influencing Fuel Wood Demand in Rural and Peri-Urban Farm Households of Kogi State. The Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(1), 115–127.

Oyeniyi, B. A. (2011). Waste Management in Contemporary Nigeria: The Abuja Example. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance, 2(2). Retrieved from

Parker, J. (2011). Increasing industry demand for triple bottom line education. The Consortium Journal of Hospitality & Tourism, 16(2), 47–50.

Penny, W. Y. (2007). The use of environmental management as a facilities management tool in the Macao hotel sector. Facilities, 25(7/8), 286–295.

Preston, A. M., Cooper, D. J., Scarbrough, D. P., & Chilton, R. C. (1995). Changes in the code of ethics of the U.S. accounting profession 1917 and 1988: the continual quest for legitimation. Accounting, Organizations, and Society, 20(6), 507–546.

Preston, L. E., and Post, J. E. (1975). Private management and public policy. Englewood Cliffs, London: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Rivera, J. (2002). “Assessing a Voluntary Environmental Initiative in the Developing World: The Costa Rican Certification for Sustainable Tourism.” Policy Sciences, 35, 333–360.

Rivera, J. (2004). Institutional Pressures and Voluntary Environmental Behavior in Developing Countries: Evidence From the Costa Rican Hotel Industry. Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal, 17(9), 779–797.

Shabi, A. (2015). Lagos government seals 53 churches mosques and hotels over pollution. Vanguard Nigeria Newspaper, p. 1. Retrieved from

Sridhar, M. K. C. (2013). The Challenge of Waste Management in Nigeria : Recommendations towards a Functional National Policy 1, 3(Table 1), 1–9.

Sucheran, R. (2016). Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) in the hotel and lodge sector in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 5(3), 1–17.

Suchman, M. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 57l–610.

Tesfaye, F. (2016). Environmental Social Responsible Practices of Hospitality Industry: the case of first level hotels and Lodges in Gondar City, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management, 9(2), 235 – 244. tp://

The African Traveller. (2015). Hospitality outlook: 2015-2019 South Africa – Nigeria – Mauritius – Kenya. Retrieved from

Timothy, D.J., & Teye, V. B. (2009). Tourism and the Lodging Sector. Butterworth- Heineman, Boston, MA.

Tzschentke, N. A., Kirk, D., & Lynch, P. A. (2008). Going green: Decisional factors in small hospitality operations, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(1), 126–133.

Ukabuilu, Emmanuel Igbojekwe, Polycarp A., P. U. (2014). An Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Developed Tourism Projects in Selected Sites in Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(10), 393–406. Retrieved from

United Nations Global Compact. (2012). The Ten Principles of the UN Global Compact, Retrieved from on the 18th May, 2017.%0A

UNWTO. (2014). United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Annual Report. Madrid, Spain. Retrieved from

UNWTO. (2018). 2017 International Tourism Results: the highest in seven years | World Tourism Organization UNWTO. Retrieved from

Visser, W. (2005). Revisiting Carroll ’ S CSR Pyramid. Africa, 29. Retrieved from

World Travel and Tourism Council. (2015). “Travel&Tourism Economic Impact 2015 – Nigeria”, World Travel and Tourism Council.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.