Evaluation of Etiological Factors of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) Using CT scan as the Gold Standard.
Objective: This study was focused to find out the precision of the CT scan in diagnosis of the subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Study Design: Prospective type of study.
Duration and Setting: This study was carried out in a period of 9 months from August 2017 to April 2018 in Mayo hospital Lahore in Neurosurgery department.
Patients and Methods: Off all the cases landing in Mayo hospital emergency department only those cases were selected which had subarachnoid hemorrhage and in this study only those were included which had hemorrhage due to some sort of trauma or vascular injury. A total of 100 patients were selected in a period of 9 months which were willing to take part in this research. Informed consent was taken from the patient or attendant. A carefully designed proforma was used for data collection. Ethical approval was taken from the ethical committee of the Mayo hospital.
Results: A total of 1538 cases presented in emergency in 9 months with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 cases were selected which were willing to take part in study. Clinical feature were recorded. Total 66 (66%) cases had throbbing headache (a typical feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage), nausea and vomiting was recorded in 53(53%) cases while stiffness of neck was seen in 26(26%) cases. Head injury was the leading cause with 53(53%) in these patients, ruptured aneurysm was noted in 30(30%) of the cases and 12(12%) hemorrhages were because of the arterio-venous malformation. Typical findings of SAH were seen in 97(97%) of the cases on CT scan and atypical findings were seen in 3(3%) of the cases of SAH.
Conclusion: Trauma was the leading cause of SAH while arterio-venous malformation and other causes like aneurysmal rupture were seen in some cases. Headache was the most commonly found clinical feature.
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