Study involving the risk factors of Tetanus and their influence on its outcome

Tuba Rashid, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad Zeeshan


Objectives: To find out the mortality and morbidity associated with various risk factors of tetanus and their effect on its treatment.

Design: Prospective study.

Setting: This study was carried out in Mayo Hospital Lahore from August 2017 to April 2018.

Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 patients admitted to Mayo hospital medical wards either via emergency of OPD were selected. Patients were between the ages of 10-32 years with mean age of 21 years. A carefully formulated performs was used for data collection. Informed consents were taken from patients or their attendants. Data was analyzed using Microsoft office 2013 and articulated in charts and tables.

Results: A total of hundred patients included 67 males and 33 females. Mortality was found to be 38%. Patients with difficulty in breathing or respiratory arrest were intubated and kept under continuous monitoring in intensive care unit. Road traffic accidents (RTA), throne prick, abscess, ulcer, trauma, and septic abortion or burn were the major risk factors involved in tetanus. Out of 33 females 23(69.6%) were high risk and despite all precautions and ventilator mechanical support 19(57.5%) females died. Similarly among the males 67 patients 46(68.6%) were high risk and among them 19(28.3%) died instead of every measurement.

Conclusion: Regarding the fatality, Tetanus is among the top ranks. Multiple risk factors are involved in tetanus but the dangerous ones are Road traffic accidents, septic abortion and agriculture injuries. Previously unimmunized patients were selected and higher mortality rate was seen in females compared to males. Timely diagnosis and prompt treatment may reduce death rate to much extent.


Tetanus, Mortality, Morbidity, risk factors, Management.

Full Text:



Shanson, D, C. Microbiology in clinical practice 2n d edn Wright, London. Saul Krugman, Robert Ward, Samual L, Kadz: “Tetanus

Kahane SM, Watt JP. Newell K Kellam S, Wright S, Smith, NJ. Reingold A Adler R, Immunization levels and risk factors for low immunization, Coverage among private practices. Pediatrics, 2000; Jun; 105(6): E 73.

Raza SNI, Amjad. M . Shah AA. Prognostic factors in adult tetanus J Post Grade Med Ins. 1997; 8(3,4): 64-7.

Hussein M ., Raza H. Neonatal tetanus in Pakistan. Journal of Pak Institute of Medical Sciences. 1993; (4) 122:198-201.

C. J. Rubidge and A. G. Wesley. Infectious disease. H. M . Coovadia and W .E.K. Loering (edn) Oxford. Paediatrics and child health. 2n d Ed. 1988; 187-97.

Cilia G, Pere ZE Saen Z-Domingue JR Esparaza H, Otero F. Tetanus immunity among injection drug users in Guipzeou (Basque country, Spain) AIDS 1994; 8:271-2.

Billo AG. Management of NNT: Role of mothers in increasing survival. Specialist: 1992; 8:93-100.

Rabbani A. Anwr SM, Zaman S, Ahmad W . Tetanus - A community health problem in Hazara div. JAMC Vol:09 No:01, 1997; 22-24.

Naheed T, Khan S. Tetanus in adult population: uncommon mode of transmission. Pak. J. Med. Sci 1999; Vol:15, No:02, 119-24.

Tayyab S, Samad JN. “Illegally induced abortions” 1996; JCPSP. 6(2): 104-106.

Kurtoglu S, Caksen H, Ozturk A. Neside Cetin Hakan Pyran Zoglu. A review of 207 new borns with Tetanus J. Pak. Med. Associ. 1998; 48(4): 93-97.

Rathore AH, Hussain R, Pervaiz A, Alim I. Conservative treatment of severe form of Tetanus: A comparative study of the three regimens. Specialist Pakistan J. Med. Sci. 1994; 10(4): 339-343, ISSN 1017-4699.

Sesw S, 0; Block, A.V.T. Heron. Epidemiology of Tetanus in Denmark 1920-82 Scand J. Inf Disease 1987; 19(4); 4378-44.

William, E.H; Hayes, R. J. and Smoth P.G. over a 27 period admission to rural hospital in the West Nile District years of Uganda J. Int. Med. Hyg. 1986; 59(4): 193-211.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.