Study involving the risk factors of Tetanus and their influence on its outcome
Objectives: To find out the mortality and morbidity associated with various risk factors of tetanus and their effect on its treatment.
Design: Prospective study.
Setting: This study was carried out in Mayo Hospital Lahore from August 2017 to April 2018.
Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 patients admitted to Mayo hospital medical wards either via emergency of OPD were selected. Patients were between the ages of 10-32 years with mean age of 21 years. A carefully formulated performs was used for data collection. Informed consents were taken from patients or their attendants. Data was analyzed using Microsoft office 2013 and articulated in charts and tables.
Results: A total of hundred patients included 67 males and 33 females. Mortality was found to be 38%. Patients with difficulty in breathing or respiratory arrest were intubated and kept under continuous monitoring in intensive care unit. Road traffic accidents (RTA), throne prick, abscess, ulcer, trauma, and septic abortion or burn were the major risk factors involved in tetanus. Out of 33 females 23(69.6%) were high risk and despite all precautions and ventilator mechanical support 19(57.5%) females died. Similarly among the males 67 patients 46(68.6%) were high risk and among them 19(28.3%) died instead of every measurement.Conclusion: Regarding the fatality, Tetanus is among the top ranks. Multiple risk factors are involved in tetanus but the dangerous ones are Road traffic accidents, septic abortion and agriculture injuries. Previously unimmunized patients were selected and higher mortality rate was seen in females compared to males. Timely diagnosis and prompt treatment may reduce death rate to much extent.
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