Risk factors of Lower back pain; A very common problem in Pakistani community

Ahsan Moeid, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Ali, Erum Shahzad


Objective: To determine the risk factors of lower back pain in our community.

Study design and duration: It is a community based retrospective cohort study having duration of one year.

Setting: This study was conducted in Nishtar Hospital Multan.

Patients and methods:Total 250 cases irrespective of gender and age having lower back pain were included in this study. Patients having any other serious medical condition like myocardial infarction, paraplegia, CVA, pregnancy, morning stiffness or having inflammatory cause of back pain were excluded from the study. A predesigned questionnaire was used for collecting data. Unwilling patients were not included as well. Consent was taken from ethical committee of the study institution for conducting the study and from all cases for including them in this study. Confidence interval was 95% with 5% margin of error. P-value less than 0.05 was taken significant. Chi-squre test applied. Data was analyzed using SPSS-v18.

Results: Out of 250 cases 95 were male and 155 were female cases. There were 210 married patients and 40 were unmarried. There were 6% cases having age 15-25 years, 14% between 26-35 years, 18.8% between 36-45 years, 28% between 46-55 years and 33.2% were above 55 years. In 31.2% cases risk factor of lower back pain was their profession related bending and twisting of body, in 17.6% kneeling and squatting, 10.4% heavy working, inadequate sleep <6hours and history of back trauma was reported as a risk factor in 8.4% cases.

Conclusion: Lower back pain is a very common problem among old age people and most common risk factor is bending movement of back.

Full Text:



Andersson GB. Epidemiology of low back pain. Acta Orthop Scand Supplement 1998; 281: 28-31.

Dionne CE, Dunn KM, Croft PR. Does back pain prevalence really decrease with increasing age? A systematic review. Age and Ageing 2006; 35: 229-34.

Rapoport J, Jacobs P, Bell NR, et al. Refining the measurement of the economic burden of chronic diseases in Canada. Chronic Diseases in Canada 2004; 25: 13-21.

Deyo RA, Cherkin D, Conrad D, et al. Cost, controversy, crisis: low back pain and the health of the public. Ann Rev Public Health 1991; 12: 141-56.

Volinn E. The epidemiology of low back pain in the rest of the world. A review of surveys in low- and middle-income countries. Spine 1997; 22: 1747-54.

Chaiamnuay P, Darmawan J, Muirden KD, et al. Epidemiology of rheumatic disease in rural Thailand: A WHO-ILARCOPCORD study. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 1382-7.

Hoy D, Toole MJ, Morgan D, et al. Low back pain in rural Tibet. Lancet 2003; 361: 225-6.

Jin K, Sorock GS, Courtney TK. Prevalence of low back pain in three occupational groups in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. J Saf Res 2004; 35: 23-8.

Ory FG, Rahman FU, Katagade V, et al. Respiratory disorders, skin complaints, and low-back trouble among tannery workers in Kanpur, India. Am Industrial Hyg Assoc J 1997; 58: 740-6.

Lidgren L. The bone and joint decade 2000-2010. Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81: 629.

Steenstra IA, Verbeek JH, Heymans MW, et al. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave in patients sick listed with acute low back pain: a systematic review of the literature. Occup Environ Med 2005; 62: 851-60.

Kent PM, Keating JL. The epidemiology of low back pain in primary care. Chiropractic and Osteopathy 2005; 13: 13.

Thelin A, Holmberg S, Thelin N. Functioning in neck and low back pain from a 12-year perspective: a prospective population-based study. J Rehabil Med 2008; 40: 555-61.

Tomita S, Arphorn S, Muto T, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among Thai and Myanmar migrant seafood processing factory workers in Samut Sakorn Province, Thailand. Ind Health 2010; 48: 283-91.

Van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T, et al. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J 2006; 15: 169-91.

Sterud T, Tynes T. Work-related psychosocial and mechanical risk factors for low back pain: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population in Norway. Occup Environ Med 2013; 70: 296-302.

back pain among children and adolescents - a nation-wide, cohort based questionnaire survey in Finland. Spine 1997; 22: 1132-6. [PubMed] [Cross Ref].

McMeeken J, Tully E, Stillman B, Nattrass CL, Bygott IL, Story I. The experience of back pain in young Australians. Manual Ther 2001; 6: 213-20.

Leboeuf-Yde C, Kyvik K. At what age does low back pain become a common problem? Spine 1998; 23: 228-34.

Papageorgiou A, Croft P, Ferry S, et al. Estimating the prevalence of low back pain in the general population - evidence from the South Mancester back pain survey. Spine 1995; 20: 1889-94.

Deyo R, Tsui-Wu Y. Descriptive epidemiology of low-back pain and its related medical care in the United States. Spine 1987; 12: 264-8.

Van der Heijden GJMG, Bouter LM, Terpstra-Lindeman E. The efficacy of traction for low back pain: results of a randomized blinded pilot study. Ned T Fysiotherapie 1991; 101: 37-43.

Van Tulder M, Koes B, Bombardier C. Low back pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2002; 16: 761-75.

Bergman S, Herrstorm P, Hogstorm K, et al. Chronic musculoskeletal pain, prevalence rates, and socio-demographic associations in a Swedish population study. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 1369-77.

Natvig B, Bruusgaard D, Ericsen W. Localized low back pain and low back pain as part of widespread musculoskeletal pain: two different disorders? J Rehabil Med 2001; 33: 21-5.

Sizer PS Jr, Phelps V, Matthijs O. Pain generators of the lumbar spine. Pain Pract 2001; 1: 255-73.

Pincus T, Santos R, Breen A, et al. A review and proposal for a core set of factors for prospective cohorts in low back pain: a consensus statement. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 59: 14-24.

Hoy D, Brooks P, Blyth F, et al. The Epidemiology of low back pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2010; 24: 769-81.

Hoogendoorn WE, Bongers PM, de Vet HC, et al. Flexion and rotation of the trunk and lifting at work are risk factors for low back pain: results of a prospective cohort study. Spine 2000; 25: 3087-92.

van den Heuvel SG, Ariens GA, Boshuizen HC, et al. Prognostic factors related to recurrent low-back pain and sickness absence. Scand J Work Environ Health 2004; 30: 459-67.

Harkness EF, Macfarlane GJ, Nahit ES, et al. Risk factors for new-onset low back pain amongst cohorts of newly employed workers. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 959-68.

Andersen JH, Haahr JP, Frost P. Risk factors for more severe regional musculoskeletal symptoms: a two-year prospective study of a general working population. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 1355-64.

Sorensen IG, Jacobsen P, Gyntelberg F, et al. Occupational and other predictors of herniated lumbar disc disease-a 33-year follow-up in the Copenhagen male study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2011; 36: 1541-6.

Macfarlane GJ, Thomas E, Papageorgiou AC, et al. Employment and physical work activities as predictors of future low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1997; 22: 1143-9.

Smedley J, Egger P, Cooper C, et al. Prospective cohort study of predictors of incident low back pain in nurses. BMJ 1997; 314: 1225-8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.