Impact of gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus on the foetal heart
Foetal cardiac structural and functional features have been examined in pregnancies diabetic and non-diabetic and healthy pregnancies. During 15.1.17-15.7.17, cardiac structure and function assessment was scheduled of 50 healthy pregnant women, 25 pregnant women with gestational diabetes and 25 with pre-gestational diabetes. The thickness of foetal interventricular septum (IVS) was significantly more in diabetic group as compared to non-diabetics (p < 0.05) but no one was having an IVS > 2 SD from normal. The top velocity of tricuspid E and the ratio of E/A was considerably low in diabetic group (p < 0.05). Values of tricuspid valve Ea and the ratio of Ea/Aa were less in the diabetic group as compared to control group (p<0.05)but there was no considerable difference in between pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05). In diabetic pregnancies the most common structural abnormality is the interventricular septal hypertrophy. No risk is linked to foetal with these changes unless it results in the functional impairment. Therefore, it is believed that it is necessary to monitor the diabetic pregnant women for foetal cardiac diastolic dysfunction.
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