Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Sadia Javed, Muhammad Arif Anwar, Hafiza Bakhtawar Abbass



Gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common gastric problem in middle age group as well as in old age group. It is characterized by decreased LES tone leading to reflux of acidic contents and food items from stomach into the esophagus particularly when the patients lies down or on bending and straining. It casuses epigastric burning, restrosternal chest pain, nausea, vomiting and in long standing cases cough, asthma and recurrent chest infections.

It is diagnosed clinically but in case of diagnostic uncertainty Lower esophageal ph monitoring is done. Proton pump inhibitors and life style modifications are mainstay of treatment. In advanced and resistant cases however, anti-reflux surgery is done. In untreated and longstanding GERD, barretts esophagus is a serious complication. It is replacement of cuboidal epithelium of LES and lower esophagus by the columnar epithelium. Although it can be asymptomatic it can predispose to malignancy in long run.

Key words: GERD, reflux, barretts esophagus.

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