Exploring determinants of male involvement in PMTCT programs in chibombo district of central province of zambia
Introduction: The role that men can play in the prevention of HIV is cardinal in changing the course of the epidemic. When men take part in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, their knowledge of HIV increases, they become supportive to their partners and their response to HIV testing improves. The main aim of this study was to determine factors that influence male involvement in PMTCT programs in Chibombo district of Central Province in Zambia.
Methodology: The study was a cross sectional one conducted in Chibombo district in central province of Zambia. The information was collected from 240 male participants whose partners either had or had not attended ANC and PMTCT programs from 1st January, 2008 to 31st December, 2013 using a semi structured questionnaire, and from six focus group discussions (FGDs).
Results: The participants had a mean age of 35years, and that age was not statistically significant (p = 0.353). Factors such as education, and knowledge of PMTCT (P = 0.007and 0.01 respectively) had an association with men’s willingness to attend PMTCT programs. The occupation of respondents who were in formal employment was statistically significant (p= 0.026) indicating an association with male involvement in PMTCT programs. There was no association between age (p= 0.480), residence (p= 0.209), financial earnings (p =0.151) and PMTCT program attendance and only 134(58.3%) knew partners antenatal care (ANC) appointment. The majority of the respondents, 219(91.7%) indicated that they would accept couple counselling and testing during PMTCT programs.
Conclusion and Recommendations: The level of male involvement in PMTCT programs was associated with knowledge of PMTCT, occupation and education level of male partners. The willingness of males to get involved in PMTCT was low (63.7%) hence the need for more concerted effort to persuade men to be attending PMTCT programs. Findings from the focus group discussions revealed that there were individual, socio economic, health related factors that had an effect on men’s participation in PMTCT services, hence the need for community sensitization for men on the benefits of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and also that timing and what is offered during the programs should include men’s reproductive health needs.
Aarnio P, Olsson P, Chimbiri A, Kulmala T: Male involvement in antenatal HIV counseling and testing: exploring men’s perceptions in rural Malawi. AIDS Care 2009, 21(12):1537-1546.
Baiden F, Remes P, Baiden R, Williams J, Hodgson A, Boelaert M, Buve A. Voluntary counseling and HIV testing for pregnant women in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana: is couple counseling the way forward? AIDS Care. 2005;17:648–657. doi: 10.1080/09540120412331319688.pubMed crossref
Byamugisha,R, Tumwine,K, Semiyaga,N and Tylleskar,T. 2010. Determinants of male involvement in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program in eastern Uganda. Reproductive health .2010, 7:12. Available online http://www.reproductive-health- journal.com/content/71/12.
Burke MG, R.M., Burke JD, Maximising male participation in prevention of mother to child transmission programs in Tanzania, in Int Conf AIDS. Bangkok, Thailand.2004.
Chibombo district health information system report. 2012.
EuoPROFEM. Male involvement in reproductive health. 2006. Available online: http://www.europrofem.org/contri/2_04_en/en‐masc/53en_mas.htm. Accessed on 25/05/2013
FAO, Male involvement in reproductive health: Incorporating gender throughout the lifecycle, FAO. 1998.
Green L.W, Kreuter M.W, Health promotion planning. An educational and ecological approach (3rd edition) mcgraw hill. 1999.
Higgins J.A, Dworkin S.L, Rethinking Gender,Heterosexual Men and Women's Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Public Health, 2010.
International, F.C. Male involvement in reproductive health: Available online: http://www.europrofem.org/contri/2_04_en/en‐masc/53en_mas.htm. Accessed on 10/06/2013
IRIN PLUS News, 9 November 2010. Kenya: male clinics boost participation in PMTCT. 2010. Available online: http:www.plusnews.org. Accessed on 25/08/2013
Kavuma L, M.E., Onyango S, Pariyo G, Factors that influence male involvement in the Home Based Care program in Uganda. , in Int Conf AIDS. International AIDS Society: Bangkok,Thailand.2004.
Katz1 D, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Richardson B, Barbra A, Carey F. Male perspectives on incorporating men into antenatal HIV counseling and testing; 2009 [Accessed september 2014. Available from: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007602.
Khan ME. Involving men in safe motherhood. J Fam Welf. 1997;43:18–30.
Kiarie JN, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, John-Steward GC. Compliance with antiretroviral regimens to prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Kenya. AIDS. 2003;17:65–71. doi: 10.1097/00002030-200301030-00009.(PMC free artical) pub med)
Kura S, Vince J, Crouch-Chivers P: Male Involvement in sexual and reproductive health in the Mendi district, Southern Highlands province of Papua New Guinea: a descriptive study.
Maman S, A.K.G., E. Smith, N. Makhayna, M.P. Pakkies, S. Msomi, D. Moodley, Redefining male involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) from female partner’s perspectives, in XVII AIDS Conference. Mexico City. 2008.
Masingi N, C.C., Chauwa F, Kandikole L, Jumbe A, Nkhalamba T, Kanyama C, Martinson F,McCauley M, Hoffman I, Hosseinipour M, Experience with couples attending voluntary counseling and testing in Lilongwe, Malawi, in Int Conf AIDS, International AIDS Society:Bangkok, Thailand. 2004.
Mbuyi B, M.R., Vaz LM, Callens S, Behets F, Kokolomami J. Involving male partners in programs to prevent mother‐to‐child transmission of HIV in Kinshasa, DRC. . In Int Conf AIDS. International AIDS Society. 2004.
Moyo A.T, K.M., G. Letamo, Socio‐cultural constructions shaping male involvement in HIV/AIDS Prevention in Botswana, in Int Conf AIDS. International AIDS Society: Toronto, Canada.2006.
Mullany B, Becker S, Hindin MJ. The impact of including husbands in antenatal health education services on maternal health practices in urban Nepal: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Health Educ Res. 2007;22:166–176.(pubMed)
NETWORK, U.N.P.I. Guidelines on Reproductive Health. 2009. Available online: http://www.un.org/popin/unfpa/taskforce/guide/iatfreph.gdl.html. Accessed on 06/05/2013
New Partners Initiative (NPI) SOTA. Involving men in PMTCT: Program examples and experiences in Africa.
Nkuoh GN, Meyer DJ, Tih PM, Nkfusai J: Barriers to men’s participation in antenatal and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission care in Cameroon, Africa. J Midwifery Wom Health 2010, 55(4):363-369.
Peacock D. Men as partners: promoting men’s involvement in care and support activities for people living with HIV and AIDS; October 2003 [Accessed July 2014]. Available from: http://126.96.36.199/womenwatch/daw/egm/men-boys2003/eps-peacock
Pearson, S.a.M., Panganai, Help‐seeking behaviour for sexual‐health concerns:a qualitative study of men in Zimbabwe. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 2008.
Pool R, Nyanzi S, Whitworth JA: Attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing for HIV among pregnant women in rural south-west Uganda. AIDS Care 2001, 13(5):605-615.
Reece M, Hollub A, Narugami M, Lane K. Assessing male spousal engagement with prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV programme in eastern Uganda. A cross sectional survey: reproductive health 2010, 7:12.
Sarker M, Sanou A, Snow R, Ganame J, Gondos A: Determinants of HIV counselling and testing in a Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission programme in rural Burkina Faso. Trop Med Int Health 2007, 12(12):1475-1483.
Scaling Up Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Information Note. http://www.aidsspace.org
Theuring S, Mbezi P, Luvanda H, Jordan-Harder B, Kunz A, Harms G. Male involvement in PMTCT services in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. AIDS Behaviour. 2009;13:s92–s102. doi: 10.1007/s10461-009-9543-0.pub Medcross ref
Tshibumbu, D.D., Factors influencing male involvement in Prevention of Mother To ChildTransmission (PMTCT) of HIV Programmes in Mambwe District, Zambia, in Health Studies. November 2006, University of South Africa. 2006.
Turan JM, Nalbant H, Bulut A, Sahip Y. Including expectant fathers in antenatal education programmes in Istanbul, Turkey. Reprod Health Matters. 2001;9:114–125.(PubMed) cross ref
UNAIDS, 2010 Report on the global aids epidemic.2010 Available online: http://www.unaids.org/global report/globalreport.htm Accessed on 29/05/2013.
Varkey LC, Mishra A, Das A, Ottolenghi E, Huntington D, Adamchak S, Khan ME, Homan F. Involving Men in Maternity Care in India. New Delhi: Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program Population Council; 2004.
World Health Organization. PMTCT strategic vision 2010-2015: Preventing Mother to Child Transmission of HIV to reach the UNGASS and Millennium Development Goals. Geneva. 2010. Available online: http://www.who.int/child adolescent health health/en/. Accessed on 20/06/2013.
WHO. Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/reproductive_health/en/. Accessed on 07/06/2013.
WHO. Global HIV/AIDS response epidemic update on health sector progress towards universal access, progress report 2011. Geneva world health organisation, 2011. Available online: http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/progress_report2011. Accessed on 27/05/2013.
WHO, Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. 2002.
Zambia Demographic Health Survey. 2007
Zambia 2010 census of population and housing. Population summary report. 2012.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.